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PubMed | Center for Psychosocial Medicine and University of Heidelberg
Type: | Journal: Substance abuse and rehabilitation | Year: 2016

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Brooks S.J.,Uppsala University | Brooks S.J.,King's College London | O'Daly O.,King's College London | Uher R.,King's College London | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eating food between healthy women and those with AN is unknown. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined neural activation when 42 women thought about eating the food shown in images: 18 with AN (11 RAN, 7 BPAN) and 24 age-matched controls (HC). Results: Group contrasts between HC and AN revealed reduced activation in AN in the bilateral cerebellar vermis, and increased activation in the right visual cortex. Preliminary comparisons between AN subtypes and healthy controls suggest differences in cortical and limbic regions. Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that thinking about eating food shown in images increases visual and prefrontal cortical neural responses in females with AN, which may underlie cognitive biases towards food stimuli and ruminations about controlling food intake. Future studies are needed to explicitly test how thinking about eating activates restraint cognitions, specifically in those with restricting vs. binge-purging AN subtypes. © 2012 Brooks et al.


Brooks S.J.,Uppsala University | ODaly O.G.,King's College London | Uher R.,King's College London | Friederich H.-C.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Previous fMRI studies show that women with eating disorders (ED) have differential neural activation to viewing food images. However, despite clinical differences in their responses to food, differential neural activation to thinking about eating food, between women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) is not known. Methods: We compare 50 women (8 with BN, 18 with AN and 24 age-matched healthy controls [HC]) while they view food images during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results: In response to food (vs non-food) images, women with BN showed greater neural activation in the visual cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right insular cortex and precentral gyrus, women with AN showed greater activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and right precuneus. HC women activated the cerebellum, right insular cortex, right medial temporal lobe and left caudate. Direct comparisons revealed that compared to HC, the BN group showed relative deactivation in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus/insula, and visual cortex, and compared to AN had relative deactivation in the parietal lobe and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, but greater activation in the caudate, superior temporal gyrus, right insula and supplementary motor area. Conclusions: Women with AN and BN activate top-down cognitive control in response to food images, yet women with BN have increased activation in reward and somatosensory regions, which might impinge on cognitive control over food consumption and binge eating. © 2011 Brooks et al.


Simon J.J.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | Skunde M.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | Wu M.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | Schnell K.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Food is an innate reward stimulus related to energy homeostasis and survival, whereas money is considered a more general reward stimulus that gains a rewarding value through learning experiences. Although the underlying neural processing for both modalities of reward has been investigated independently from one another, a more detailed investigation of neural similarities and/or differences between food and monetary reward is still missing. Here, we investigated the neural processing of food compared with monetary-related rewards in 27 healthy, normal-weight women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either abstract food or monetary reward. Both tasks activated the ventral striatum during the expectation of a reward. Compared with money, greater food-related activations were observed in prefrontal, parietal and central midline structures during the anticipation and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) during the receipt of food reward. Furthermore, during the receipt of food reward, brain activation in the secondary taste cortex was positively related to the body mass index. These results indicate that food-dependent activations encompass to a greater extent brain regions involved in self-control and self-reflection during the anticipation and phylogenetically older parts of the lOFC during the receipt of reward. © The Author (2014).


Moritz S.,University of Hamburg | Veckenstedt R.,University of Hamburg | Andreou C.,University of Hamburg | Bohn F.,University of Hamburg | And 10 more authors.
JAMA Psychiatry | Year: 2014

IMPORTANCE Cognitive interventions increasingly complement psychopharmacological treatment to enhance symptomatic and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Metacognitive training (MCT) is targeted at cognitive biases involved in the pathogenesis of delusions. Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measurewas a delusion score derived from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The PANSS positive syndrome and total scores, the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales, the jumping to conclusions bias, self-esteem, and quality of life served as secondary outcome measures. RESULTS The intention-to-treat analyses demonstrated that patients in the MCT group had significantly greater reductions in the core PANSS delusion score, after 3 years compared with the control group (η2 partial = .037; P = .05). Among the secondary outcomes, the intention-to-treat analyses also demonstrated that patients in the MCT group had significantly greater reductions in the PANSS positive syndrome score (η2 partial = .055; P = .02) and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales delusion score (η2 partial = .109; P = .001). Significant group differences at the 3-year follow-up were also found on measures of self-esteem and quality of life, which did not distinguish groups at earlier assessment points. Attention was improved in the neuropsychological training group relative to the MCT group. The completion rate was 61.3%after 3 years. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Metacognitive training demonstrated sustained effects in the reduction of delusions, which were over and above the effects of antipsychotic medication. Moreover, there were some unanticipated ("sleeper") effects as both self-esteem and quality of life were improved after 3 years. Effects on self-esteem and well-being were found even in the absence of an improvement on the jumping to conclusions bias.OBJECTIVE To examine the long-term efficacy of group MCT for schizophrenia in order to explore whether previously established effects were sustained. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 2-center, randomized, controlled, assessor-blind, parallel group trial was conducted. A total of 150 inpatients or outpatients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were enrolled. All patients were prescribed antipsychotic medication. The second follow-up assessment took place 3 years later after the intervention phase was terminated.INTERVENTIONS Group MCT targeting cognitive biases vs neuropsychological training (COGPACK). Patients received a maximum of 16 sessions.TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN95205723.


Simon J.J.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | Cordeiro S.A.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | Weber M.-A.,University of Heidelberg | Friederich H.-C.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2015

Dysfunctional patterns of activation in brain reward networks have been suggested as a core element in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether this dysfunction is specific to schizophrenia or can be continuously observed across persons with different levels of nonclinical and clinical symptom expression. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the pattern of reward system dysfunction is consistent with a dimensional or categorical model of psychosis-like symptom expression. 23 patients with schizophrenia and 37 healthy control participants with varying levels of psychosis-like symptoms, separated into 3 groups of low, medium, and high symptom expression underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Cued Reinforcement Reaction Time task. We observed lower activation in the ventral striatum during the expectation of high vs no reward to be associated with higher symptom expression across all participants. No significant difference between patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high symptom expression was found. However, connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial orbitofrontal cortex was specifically reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Dysfunctional local activation of the ventral striatum depends less on diagnostic category than on the degree of symptom expression, therefore showing a pattern consistent with a psychosis continuum. In contrast, aberrant connectivity in the reward system is specific to patients with schizophrenia, thereby supporting a categorical view. Thus, the results of the present study provide evidence for both continuous and discontinuous neural substrates of symptom expression across patients with schizophrenia and the general population. © 2015 The Author.


PubMed | Neuropsychology Unit, Hannover Medical School, University of Bonn, University of Leipzig and 10 more.
Type: | Journal: The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners | Year: 2016

Arteriosclerotic disorders increase the risk of dementia. As they have common causes and risk factors, coronary heart disease (CHD) could influence the course of dementia.To determine whether CHD increases the speed of cognitive decline in Alzheimers disease, and to discuss the potential for secondary cardiovascular prevention to modify this decline.Prospective multicentre cohort study in general practices in six cities in Germany.Participants were patients with probable mild-to-moderate Alzheimers dementia or mixed dementia (n = 118; mean age 85.6 [3.4] years, range 80-96 years). The authors assessed the presence of CHD according to the family physicians diagnosis. Cognitive performance was measured during home visits for up to 3 years in intervals of 6 months, using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SoB). The authors also recorded whether patients died in the observation period.At baseline, 65 patients (55%) had CHD and/or a heart condition following a myocardial infarction. The presence of CHD accelerated cognitive decline (MMSE, P<0.05) by about 66%, and reduced cognitive-functional ability (CDR-SoB, P<0.05) by about 83%, but had no impact on survival.The study shows that CHD has a significant influence on cognitive decline in older patients with late-onset dementia. The dementia process might therefore be positively influenced by cardiovascular prevention, and this possible effect should be further investigated.


Kaiser S.,University of Zürich | Kaiser S.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | Heekeren K.,University of Zürich | Simon J.J.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine
Psychopathology | Year: 2011

Negative symptoms have been considered to be specific to schizophrenia or a subtype of schizophrenia: the deficit syndrome. In other words, these symptoms have been considered to be categorically different from other forms of human behavior and experience, whether they occur in healthy persons or patients with other psychiatric disorders. In this paper, we advocate a dimensional approach to negative symptoms, which is supported by two main arguments. First, enduring negative symptoms can even be observed in a variety of psychiatric disorders and they are not specific to schizophrenia. Second, we review evidence that negative symptoms show a continuous distribution from apparently healthy subjects to those with a fully developed clinical syndrome. Although the evidence does not allow for a definite decision concerning the dimensional distribution of negative symptoms, it certainly justifies exploring a dimensional approach with respect to its clinical and scientific utility. Understanding negative symptoms as a variation of normal mental processes will strengthen the development of neurocognitive models and treatment approaches. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Rentrop M.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | Roth A.,University of Tübingen | Rodewald K.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | Simon J.,Center for Psychosocial Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2011

Recent theories of schizophrenia have proposed a fundamental instability of information processing on a neurophysiological level, which can be measured as an increase in latency variability of event-related potentials (ERPs). If this reflects a fundamental deficit of the schizophrenic illness, it should also occur in high-functioning patients. These patients have also been observed to show a more diffuse activation pattern in neuroimaging studies, which is thought to reflect compensatory processes to maintain task performance. In the present study we investigated temporal variability and spatial diffusion of the visual N2 component in a group of high-functioning patients with preserved cognitive performance. 28 patients with schizophrenia and 28 control participants matched for gender, age and education participated in the study. Subjects performed a visual Go/Nogo task, while event-related potentials were obtained. Trial-to-trial latency variability was calculated with a Wavelet-based method. Patients with schizophrenia showed a robust increase in N2 latency variability at electrodes Fz and Cz in all task conditions. Regarding spatial distribution healthy participants showed a focused fronto-central N2 peak. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia showed a more diffuse pattern and additional negative peaks over lateral electrodes in the Nogo condition. These results clearly show that even in high-functioning patients with schizophrenia a higher temporal variability of ERPs can be observed. This provides support for temporal instability of information processing as a fundamental deficit associated with schizophrenia. The more diffuse scalp distribution might reflect processes that compensate for this instability when cognitive control is required. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Center for Psychosocial Medicine and University of Hamburg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cognitive neuropsychiatry | Year: 2016

A liberal acceptance (LA) threshold for hypotheses has been put forward to explain the well-replicated jumping to conclusions (JTC) bias in psychosis, particularly in patients with paranoid symptoms. According to this account, schizophrenia patients rest their decisions on lower subjective probability estimates. The initial formulation of the LA account also predicts an absence of the JTC bias under high task ambiguity (i.e., if more than one response option surpasses the subjective acceptance threshold).Schizophrenia patients (n = 62) with current or former delusions and healthy controls (n = 30) were compared on six scenarios of a variant of the beads task paradigm. Decision-making was assessed under low and high task ambiguity. Along with decision judgments (optional), participants were required to provide probability estimates for each option in order to determine decision thresholds (i.e., the probability the individual deems sufficient for a decision).In line with the LA account, schizophrenia patients showed a lowered decision threshold compared to controls (82% vs. 93%) which predicted both more errors and less draws to decisions. Group differences on thresholds were comparable across conditions. At the same time, patients did not show hasty decision-making, reflecting overall lowered probability estimates in patients.Results confirm core predictions derived from the LA account. Our results may (partly) explain why hasty decision-making is sometimes aggravated and sometimes abolished in psychosis. The proneness to make risky decisions may contribute to the pathogenesis of psychosis. A revised LA account is put forward.

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