Center for Psychiatric Research

Århus, Denmark

Center for Psychiatric Research

Århus, Denmark
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Bisgaard C.F.,Aarhus University Hospital | Bisgaard C.F.,Center for Psychiatric Research | Bak S.,University of Southern Denmark | Christensen T.,Aarhus University Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Extensive preclinical research has focused at unravelling the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to depression and recovery. In this study, we investigated the quantitative changes in protein abundance in the ventral hippocampal granular cell layer. We compared different phenotypes from the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression using chronic administration with two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), escitalopram and sertraline. We isolated granular cells using Laser-Capture Microdissection (LCM) and we identified their regulated proteins using two-dimensional (2D) differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The majority of the proteins we identified were enzymes involved in different metabolic activities. Additional proteins were functionally classified as vesicular proteins and immune system proteins. Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha (GDIA) and syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXB1) were potential markers for stress reactivity. Dynamin 1 (DYN1), glutathione S-transferase omega-1 (GSTO1) and peroxiredoxin (PRDX6) were associated with treatment response. In addition, an imbalance between different post-translationally modified versions of DYN1 and GSTO1 potentially accounted for SSRI treatment refraction. In the present study, we searched for new markers of stress reactivity and treatment response as well as any underlying molecular mechanisms correlating to the development of anhedonia and antidepressant therapy refraction. Our results pointed towards an essential role of post-translational modifications in both vesicular and immune protein systems. © The Author(s) 2012.

Froberg F.,Karolinska Institutet | Froberg F.,Center for Psychiatric Research | Rosendahl I.K.,Karolinska Institutet | Abbott M.,Auckland University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Gambling Studies | Year: 2014

We aimed to estimate the incidence of a first episode of problem gambling among Swedish 16–24 year-olds by demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and to compare the incidence between 16–24 and 25–44 year-olds, and between young women and men. Other aims were to estimate the proportions of recovery and incidence in recurrent problem gambling, and prevalence of problem gambling among 16–44 year-olds in Sweden. We selected 4,358 participants aged 16–44 from the nationally representative Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The primary outcome measure was a first episode of problem gambling during 12 months before the follow-up as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index among participants without a history of problem gambling at baseline. The incidence proportion of a first episode of problem gambling among 16–24 year-olds was 2.26 % (95 % confidence interval 1.52–3.36); three times lower among females (1.14; 0.42–3.07 %) than males (3.32; 2.19–5.01 %). Young age and household financial problems were associated with first episode problem gambling among young women. Among 25–44 year-olds, the incidence proportion of a first episode of problem gambling was 0.81 % (0.41–1.56). Recovery from problem gambling was high, in particular among females. Individual transitions from problem gambling to recovery and to recurrent problem gambling, between baseline and follow-up, were common regardless of age. This study adds further evidence to research suggesting that there is a high mobility in and out of problem gambling over time on an individual level. The high incidence of first episode problem gambling among youth in Sweden stresses the importance of prevention of problem gambling at an early age. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Hastrup L.H.,Psychiatric Research Unit | Hastrup L.H.,Center for Psychiatric Research | Hastrup L.H.,Unit for Psychiatric Research | Aagaard J.,Psychiatric Research Unit
Nordic Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi-experimental design with a control group from the neighbouring region. Costs and retention in mental health services were analysed by using register data 1 year before and 4 years after inclusion in the study. Data on the use of supportive housing were available for the year before baseline and the subsequent 2 years only. Results: Seventy eight percent of the patients receiving ACT were in contact with psychiatric services at the 4-year follow-up, while 69% of the patients in the control group had contact with psychiatric services (P < 0.17). Days in supportive housing were lower for the ACT group before baseline and remained so (dropping to zero) for the subsequent 2 years. Over 4 years, the mean total costs per patient in the group receiving ACT were DDK 493,442 (SE = 34,292). Excluding costs of supportive housing, the mean total costs per patient of the control group were DDK 537,218 (SE = 59,371), P < 0.53. If these costs are included, however, the mean total costs for the ACT group are unchanged, whereas costs for the control group rise to DDK 671,500 (SE = 73,671), P < 0.03. Conclusion: While ACT appears to have resulted in a significant reduction in costs for psychiatric hospitalizations, baseline differences in use of supportive housing make the effects of ACT on overall costs more ambiguous. At worst, however, overall costs did not increase. Given the generally acknowledged clinical benefits of ACT over standard outpatient care, the results support further dissemination of ACT in Denmark. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.

Coskun M.,Istanbul University | Ozturk M.,Center for Psychiatric Research | Zoroglu S.,Istanbul University
Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni | Year: 2012

Objective: To provide data about the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram treatment in preschool children with anxiety disorders. Methods: This study is a retrospective chart review of preschool children with anxiety disorders treated with escitalopram. Medical records of the subjects were reviewed for sociodemographic features, DSM-IV diagnoses, improvement and treatment related side effects. Clinical-Global Impression-severity (CGI-S) and improvement (CGI-I) scales were used to assess symptom severity and improvement. Results: The subjects were eight girls and three boys (age range 47 to 64 months; 55.45±5.90). Individual doses of escitalopram ranged between 2-10 mg/day (3.72±2.49). Five subjects showed mild to very much improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms on the CGI-I scale. Three subjects showed moderate to much improvement in anxiety symptoms and three subjects showed mild to much improvement in posttraumatic symptoms. Two subjects (18.18%) did not report any side effects. The most frequently reported side effects were symptoms of behavioral disinhibiton (n=5; 45.45%). The medication was discontinued in three subjects (27.27%) due to side effects, mainly symptoms of behavioral disinhibiton. Conclusions: A cautious trial of escitalopram may be helpful in preschool children with anxiety disorders with significant impairment and/or who are nonresponsive to psychosocial interventions. Preschool children may be more vulnerable to develop side effects, particularly behavioral disinhibition.

Bohman B.,Karolinska Institutet | Bohman B.,Center for Psychiatric Research | Rasmussen F.,Karolinska Institutet | Rasmussen F.,Center for Epidemiology and Community Medicine | Ghaderi A.,Karolinska Institutet
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2016

Background: Parental self-efficacy (PSE) refers to beliefs of parents to effectively engage in behaviors that result in desired outcomes for their children. There are several instruments of PSE for promoting healthy dietary or physical activity (PA) behaviors in children. These measures typically assess PSE in relation to some quantity or frequency of behavior, for example, number of servings or times per week. However, measuring PSE in relation to contextual circumstances, for example, psychological states and situational demands, may be a more informative approach. The purpose of the present study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a context-based PSE instrument. Methods: Swedish mothers of five-year-old children (n = 698) responded to the Parental Self-Efficacy for Healthy Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors in Preschoolers Scale (PDAP) and a questionnaire on dietary and PA behaviors in children. Interviews were conducted to explore participant perceptions of the quality of the PDAP items. Psychometric evaluation was conducted using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Spearman correlations between PSE and child behaviors were examined. Results: Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with participants, who perceived the items as highly comprehensible, relevant and acceptable. A four-factor model of a revised 21-item version of the PDAP fitted the data, with different factors of PSE for promoting healthy dietary or PA behaviors in children depending on whether circumstances were facilitating or impeding successful performance. Internal consistency was excellent for total scale (Cronbach's α = .94), and good for factors (α = .84-88). Correlations were in the expected direction: positive correlations between PSE and healthy behaviors, and negative correlations between PSE and unhealthy behaviors (all r ss ≤ .32). Conclusions: Psychometric evaluation of the PDAP provided preliminary support of construct validity and internal consistency. © 2016 The Author(s).

McFarlane W.R.,Center for Psychiatric Research | McFarlane W.R.,Tufts University | Cook W.L.,Center for Psychiatric Research | Cook W.L.,Tufts University | And 5 more authors.
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2010

Objective: The Portland [Maine] Identification and Early Referral (PIER) program was established in 2000 as a prevention system for identifying and treating youths at high risk of an initial psychotic episode. Methods: During six years, 7,270 professionals from the educational, medical, and mental health sectors were provided information on prodromal symptoms and means for rapid referral of at-risk youths, which resulted in referral of 780 youths who met eligibility criteria. Results: After screening, 37% of the community referrals were found to be at high risk of psychosis, and another 20% had untreated or early psychosis, yielding an efficiency ratio of 57%. Prodromal cases identified were 46% of the expected incidence of psychosis in the catchment area. Community educational presentations were significantly associated with referrals about six months later; half of referrals were from outside the mental health system. Conclusions: Community-based identification is an efficient public health strategy, offering the opportunity for preventive intervention.

Debrot A.,University of Fribourg | Cook W.L.,Center for Psychiatric Research | Perrez M.,University of Fribourg | Horn A.B.,University of Zürich
Journal of Family Psychology | Year: 2012

Perceived responsiveness is a fundamental ingredient of satisfying romantic relationships, especially insofar as it facilitates the development of intimacy. This study investigates how partner's concrete responsive acts-named here enacted responsiveness-affect the perception of responsiveness in the daily life of dating couples. Additionally, the subsequent association of perceived partner responsiveness with intimacy was examined. Data from both partners in 102 young heterosexual couples were gathered simultaneously 4 times a day over one week. Multilevel analysis within the framework of the actor-partner interdependence mediation model showed that perception of responsiveness is predicted by partner's enacted responsiveness. However, own enacted responsiveness also predicts own perception of responsiveness in the partner, suggesting a projection process. Perception of responsiveness, in turn, predicts not only own but also partner's feelings of intimacy, demonstrating an intimacy enhancing effect of being perceived as a responsive partner. Mediation analysis showed that perception of responsiveness mediates the effects of both own and partner's enacted responsiveness on intimacy. It can be concluded that the development of intimacy in the daily life of romantic couples is truly an interactive process that ought to be investigated from a dyadic perspective. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Coskun M.,Istanbul University | Ozturk M.,Center for Psychiatric Research
Dusunen Adam | Year: 2013

Sexual fetishism in adolescence: report of two cases Sexual fetishism is defined by recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors involving the use of nonliving objects, such as female undergarments or non-sexual body parts. Although it is assumed that fetishism usually begins by adolescence, there is very limited data on the characteristics of sexual fetishism in children or adolescents. This paper aims to describe clinical pictures of two adolescent boys who developed sexual fetishism. They were 13 and 12 years-old of age and both have comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity and social anxiety disorders. We plan to discuss clinical picture, treatment intervention and impact of comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity and social anxiety disorders in the development of sexual fetishism in these subjects.

Coskun M.,Istanbul University | Zoroglu S.,Istanbul University | Ozturk M.,Center for Psychiatric Research
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health | Year: 2012

Objective: The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD.Method: Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age) who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results: Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months) were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=15; 60.0%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n=12; 48.0%), and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%). Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions: The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD. © 2012 Coskun et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Woodberry K.A.,Center for Psychiatric Research | Woodberry K.A.,Harvard University | Woodberry K.A.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Seidman L.J.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2010

Background: Characterizing neuropsychological (NP) functioning of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis may be useful for prediction of psychosis and understanding functional outcome. The degree to which NP impairments are associated with general cognitive ability and/or later emergence of full psychosis in CHR samples requires study with well-matched controls. Methods: We assessed NP functioning across eight cognitive domains in a sample of 73 CHR youth, 13 of whom developed psychotic-level symptoms after baseline assessment, and 34 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Groups were matched on age, sex, ethnicity, handedness, subject and parent grade attainment, and median family income, and were comparable on WRAT-3 Reading, an estimate of premorbid IQ. Profile analysis was used to examine group differences and the role of IQ in profile shape. Results: The CHR sample demonstrated a significant difference in overall magnitude of NP impairment but only a small and nearly significant difference in profile shape, primarily due to a large impairment in olfactory identification. Individuals who subsequently developed psychotic-level symptoms demonstrated large impairments in verbal IQ, verbal memory and olfactory identification comparable in magnitude to first episode samples. Conclusions: CHR status may be associated with moderate generalized cognitive impairments marked by some degree of selective impairment in olfaction and verbal memory. Impairments were greatest in those who later developed psychotic symptoms. Future study of olfaction in CHR samples may enhance early detection and specification of neurodevelopmental mechanisms of risk. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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