PubMed | Center for Prostate Cancer, Chonnam National University, Seoul National University, Yonsei University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Investigative and clinical urology | Year: 2016
This post hoc analysis evaluated treatment effects, safety, and pharmacokinetics of enzalutamide in Korean patients in the phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled PREVAIL trial.Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed on androgen deprivation therapy received 160 mg/d oral enzalutamide or placebo (1:1) until death or discontinuation due to radiographic progression or skeletal-related event and initiation of subsequent therapy. Coprimary end points were centrally assessed radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included investigator-assessed rPFS, time to initiation of chemotherapy, time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, PSA response (50% decline), and time to skeletal-related event.Of 1,717 total patients, 78 patients were enrolled in Korea (enzalutamide, n=40; placebo, n=38). Hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for enzalutamide versus placebo were 0.23 (0.02-2.24) for centrally assessed rPFS, 0.77 (0.28-2.15) for OS, 0.21 (0.08-0.51) for time to chemotherapy, and 0.31 (0.17-0.56) for time to PSA progression. A PSA response was observed in 70.0% of enzalutamide-treated and 10.5% of placebo-treated Korean patients. Adverse events of grade 3 occurred in 33% of enzalutamide-treated and 11% of placebo-treated Korean patients, with median treatment durations of 13.0 and 5.1 months, respectively. At 13 weeks, the plasma concentration of enzalutamide plus N-desmethyl enzalutamide was similar in Korean and non-Korean patients (geometric mean ratio, 1.04; 90% confidence interval, 0.97-1.10).In Korean patients, treatment effects and safety of enzalutamide were consistent with those observed in the overall PREVAIL study population (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01212991).
Kwon W.-A.,Wonkwang University |
Cho I.-C.,National Police Hospital |
Yu A.,Research Institute and Hospital |
Nam B.-H.,Research Institute and Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2013
Purpose. To validate the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Heng models with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib, and to investigate prognostic factors in these patients. Methods. This study included 106 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who were treated with sunitinib from April 2007 to July 2012 including 35 patients who received systemic treatment before sunitinib and 71 that were naive to systemic treatment. Patients were evaluated using the MSKCC and Heng models, and the significance of several prognostic factors were evaluated. Results. The application of the MSKCC and Heng risk criteria resulted in stratification into 3 groups (favorable, intermediate, and poor risk) with distinctly different overall survival (OS) curves (P\0.001 and P\0.001, respectively), for the pretreated patients (P\0.001 and P\ 0.001, respectively). The Heng model had slightly better discriminatory ability (v2 = 30.82, Harrell's C = 0.6895) than theMSKCC model (v2 = 25.13, Harrell's C = 0.6532). Multivariate analysis revealed that the absence of nephrectomy and no hypertension at baseline, along with elevated C-reactive protein levels, were independent risk factors for poorer OS. Conclusions. The MSKCC and Heng model were both valid models for predicting OS. The no nephrectomy, no hypertension at baseline, and high C-reactive protein levels were independently associated with poorer OS. © Society of Surgical Oncology 2013.
Joung J.Y.,Urologic |
Joung J.Y.,Center for Prostate Cancer |
Ha Y-S.,Urologic |
Ha Y-S.,Chungbuk National University |
Drugs of Today | Year: 2013
Radium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo®, formerly Alpharadin) is one of the representative a-particle-emitting isotopes that delivers radiation with a higher biological effect to a more localized area. Preclinical studies in mouse, rat and canine models have demonstrated that radium Ra 223 dichloride has a definite skeletal affinity and antitumor effect with a relatively low toxicity on bone marrow. More recently, in a large randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA), patients with bone metastasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) received six cycles of 50 kBq/kg of radium Ra 223 dichloride in 4-week intervals. In these men, radium Ra 223 dichloride improved the median overall survival by 3.6 months when compared to the placebo group. Collectively, these results suggest that radium Ra 223 dichloride is a promising candidate for managing bone metastases in patients with CRPC. Copyright © 2013 prous Science, S.a.U. or its licensors. all rights reserved.
Kim W.-J.,Chungbuk National University |
Kim S.-K.,Chungbuk National University |
Jeong P.,Chungbuk National University |
Yun S.-J.,Chungbuk National University |
And 5 more authors.
Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011
There are no reliable criteria to handle disease progression of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), which strongly influences patient survival. Therefore, an accurate predicting method to identify progressive MIBC patients is greatly needed. The aim of this study was to identify a genetic signature associated with disease progression in MIBC. To address this issue, we analyzed three independent cohorts (a training set, test set 1 and test set 2) comprising a total of 128 MIBC patients. Micro array gene expression profiling, including gene network analysis, was performed in the training set to identify a gene expression signature associated with disease progression. The prognostic value of the signature was validated in test set 1 and test set 2 by micro array and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The determination of gene expression patterns by micro array data analysis identified 1,320 genes associated with disease progression. Gene network analysis of the 1,320 genes suggested that IL1B, S100A8, S100A9 and EGFR were important mediators of MIBC progression. We validated this putative four-gene signature in two independent cohorts (log-rank test, P< 0.05 each, respectively) and estimated the predictive value of the signature by multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 6.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-24.61; P= 0.009). Finally, signature-based stratification demonstrated that the four-gene signature was an independent predictor of MIBC progression. In conclusion, a molecular signature defined by four genes represents a promising diagnostic tool for the identification of MIBC patients at high risk of progression. © 2011 The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research.
Cho I.-C.,Center for Prostate Cancer |
Chung J.,Center for Prostate Cancer
Korean Journal of Urology | Year: 2012
The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has recently evolved from being predominantly cytokine-based treatment to the use of targeted agents, which include sorafenib, sunitinib, bevacizumab (plus interferon alpha [IFN-α]), temsirolimus, everolimus, pazopanib, and most recently, axitinib. Improved understanding of the molecular pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of RCC has led to the development of specific targeted therapies for treating the disease. In Korea, it has been 5 years since targeted therapy became available for mRCC. Thus, we now have broader and better therapeutic options at hand, leading to a significantly improved prognosis for patients with mRCC. However, the treatment of mRCC remains a challenge and a major health problem. Many questions remain on the efficacy of combination treatments and on the best methods for achieving complete remission. Additional studies are needed to optimize the use of these agents by identifying those patients who would most benefit and by elucidating the best means of delivering these agents, either in combination or as sequential single agents. Furthermore, numerous ongoing research activities aim at improving the benefits of the new compounds in the metastatic situation or their application in the early phase of the disease. This review introduces what is currently known regarding the fundamental biology that underlies clear cell RCC, summarizes the clinical evidence supporting the benefits of targeted agents in mRCC treatment, discusses survival endpoints used in pivotal clinical trials, and outlines future research directions. © The Korean Urological Association, 2012.
Joung J.Y.,Center for Prostate Cancer |
Cho I.-C.,Center for Prostate Cancer |
Lee K.H.,Center for Prostate Cancer
Korean Journal of Urology | Year: 2011
Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is the most accurate and reliable staging procedure for detecting lymph node invasion (LNI) in prostate cancer. Recently, [11C]-choline positron emission tomography imaging and magnetic resonance imaging with lymphotropic superpara-magnetic nanoparticles have shown potential for detecting LNI but are still under investigation. The risk of LNI in low-risk groups could be underestimated by use of the current nomograms, which rely on data collected from patients who underwent only limited PLND. Extended PLND (ePLND) shows higher lymph node yield, which leads to the removal of more positive nodes and fewer missed positive nodes. It may be possible to refrain from performing PLND on low-risk patients with a prostate-specific antigen value <10 ng/ml and a biopsy Gleason score ≤6, but the risk of biopsy-related understaging should be kept in mind. Theoretically, meticulous ePLND may also impact prostate cancer survival by clearing low-volume diseases and occult micrometastasis even in pN0. The therapeutic role of PLND in prostate cancer patients is still an open question, especially in individuals with low-risk disease. Patients with intermediate- to high-risk disease are more likely to benefit from ePLND. © The Korean Urological Association, 2011.
Jeong K.-C.,Biomolecular Function Research Branch |
Kim K.-T.,National Cancer Center |
Seo H.-H.,National Cancer Center |
Shin S.-P.,National Cancer Center |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Urology | Year: 2014
Purpose c-MYC is a promising target for cancer therapy but its use is restricted by unwanted, devastating side effects. We explored whether intravesical instillation of the c-MYC inhibitor KSI-3716 could suppress tumor growth in murine orthotopic bladder xenografts. Materials and Methods The small molecule KSI-3716, which blocks c-MYC/MAX binding to target gene promoters, was used as an intravesical chemotherapy agent. KSI-3716 action was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, transcription reporter assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Inhibition of cell proliferation and its mechanism was monitored by cell cytotoxicity assay, EdU incorporation assay and flow cytometry. The in vivo efficacy of KSI-3716 was examined by noninvasive luminescence imaging and histological analysis after intravesical instillation of KSI-3716 in murine orthotopic bladder xenografts. Results KSI-3716 blocked c-MYC/MAX from forming a complex with target gene promoters. c-MYC mediated transcriptional activity was inhibited by KSI-3716 at concentrations as low as 1 μM. The expression of c-MYC target genes, such as cyclin D2, CDK4 and hTERT, was markedly decreased. KSI-3716 exerted cytotoxic effects on bladder cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Intravesical instillation of KSI-3716 at a dose of 5 mg/kg significantly suppressed tumor growth with minimal systemic toxicity. Conclusions The c-MYC inhibitor KSI-3716 could be developed as an effective intravesical chemotherapy agent for bladder cancer.
Kim S.H.,Center for Prostate Cancer |
Joung J.Y.,Center for Prostate Cancer |
Chung J.,Center for Prostate Cancer |
Park W.S.,Center for Prostate Cancer |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Objectives: To determine the potential association between HPV infection and the squamous cell component of urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and to validate p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in these cancers among Koreans. Methods: We analyzed the presence of HPV infection using an HPV-DNA chip and the expression of p16 using immunohistochemistry in 47 subjects between July 2001 and March 2011. The study group (n = 35) included patients with squamous differentiation of UC of the bladder. The control group (n = 12) included patients with squamous metaplasia of the bladder. Results: Baseline characteristics of control and study groups were similar. HPV DNA detection rates were approximately 2- fold higher in the study than the control group (17.1% [6/35] versus 8.3% [1/12], respectively), but the difference was not statistically significant. P16 overexpression was detected in 16/35 (45.7%) study group and 1/12 (8.3%) control group samples (p = 0.034). Both HPV-positivity and p16 overexpression were present in 3/35 (8.8%) study group samples, but none of the control group (p = 0.295). In the study group, the percentage of HPV-positive cases who were non-smokers was 2-fold higher than the percentage of HPV-negative cases who were non-smokers (66.7% [4/6] versus 31.0% [9/29], respectively); however, statistical significance was not achieved due to the small sample size. Conclusions: HPV infection may be associated with UC of the bladder with squamous differentiation, especially in nonsmokers. However, p16 expression does not appear to be a strong surrogate marker for evidence of HPV infection in this type of cancer. © 2014 Kim et al.
PubMed | Center for Prostate Cancer and Seoul National University
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of Korean medical science | Year: 2017
One of the most significant risk factors for prostate cancer (PC) is a family history of the disease, with germ-line mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene (BRCA) 2 conferring the highest risk. We here report a 56-year-old man presented with painful gait disturbance and diagnosed PC with multiple disseminated bone metastases. The patient had a strong family history of breast cancer with his 2 nieces affected. Furthermore, his aunts and uncles from both sides were diagnosed with stomach, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. His genomic sequencing analysis of the BRCA genes revealed the same BRCA2 deleterious mutation that his breast cancer-affected nieces carried. Previous studies have suggested that BRCA2-mutated PC is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Our experience in the present case also indicated the urgent needs for novel treatment modality and PC screening in this high-risk group of patients.
PubMed | Research Institute and Hospital of National Cancer Center, Center for Prostate Cancer and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: World journal of surgical oncology | Year: 2016
Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (SUC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the urinary bladder comprising 0.2-0.6% of all histological bladder tumor subtypes. It presents as a high-stage malignancy and exhibits aggressive biological behavior, regardless of the treatment employed. It is defined as histologically indistinguishable from sarcoma and as a high-grade biphasic neoplasm with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. The mean age of patients presenting with SUC is 66years, and the male-to-female ratio is 3:1. In addition, gross hematuria is usually present. The prognosis of SUC is poorer than that of typical urothelial carcinoma because of uncertainty concerning the optimal treatment regimen.We report the case of a 77-year-old woman with SUC containing a chondrosarcoma component who, 12years previously, had undergone a nephroureterectomy for pT3N0M0 ureter cancer of the contralateral upper urinary tract. From the 4th year of follow-up after nephroureterectomy, multiple recurrent bladder tumors staged as Ta transitional cell carcinoma developed, and six transurethral resections of the bladder (TURB) with multiple intravesical instillations were performed without any evidence of metastases and upper tract recurrences. In 2015, a right partial distal ureterectomy and an additional TURB were performed due to a papillary mass at the right contralateral ureterovesical junction of the bladder, which was confirmed as a high-grade pT1 transitional cell carcinoma. After a further 2years of follow-up, total pelvic exenteration with an ileal conduit diversion was performed to remove the mass, which was a pT4N0M0 tumor composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements compatible with a sarcomatoid carcinoma including grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma and chondrosarcoma. Immunohistochemical examination showed that tumor cells were positive for vimentin and p63 and negative for NSE and Cd56 markers. In the first postoperative month, a metastatic lung nodule was detected on chest CT. The patient was scheduled for adjuvant gemcitabine-cisplatin chemotherapy.The present case was interesting because we cannot be sure if the SUC chondrosarcoma originated from the 12-year-ago proximal ureter tumor, the 2-year-ago contralateral distal ureter tumor, or a new primary bladder tumor. Genetic profiling might have been useful to determine the origin of the SUC chondrosarcoma.