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Henderson A.J.,University of Bristol | Shaheen S.O.,Center for Primary Care and Public Health
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2013

Acetaminophen is a widely used medication for the treatment of pain and fever in children and pregnant women. There is substantial epidemiological evidence in adults and children that acetaminophen use is associated with asthma symptoms. There is also a considerable body of evidence that supports a modest but consistent association of acetaminophen use in pregnancy and early infancy with asthma in later childhood. This relationship is robust to adjustment for a large range of potential confounding factors and, in some studies, shows clear evidence of a dose-dependent association but the possibility of confounding by indication has remained a concern. However, the epidemiological evidence is now compelling and there is a clear need to establish causation so that appropriate advice and interventions can be developed for children at risk of asthma. This requires randomised trials of analgesics and antipyretics, including acetaminophen, in a variety of clinical settings. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Greenhalgh T.,University of Oxford | Procter R.,Coventry University | Wherton J.,Center for Primary Care and Public Health | Sugarhood P.,East London NHS Foundation Trust | And 2 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: We sought to define quality in telehealth and telecare with the aim of improving the proportion of patients who receive appropriate, acceptable and workable technologies and services to support them living with illness or disability. Methods: This was a three-phase study: (1) interviews with seven technology suppliers and 14 service providers, (2) ethnographic case studies of 40 people, 60 to 98 years old, with multi-morbidity and assisted living needs and (3) 10 co-design workshops. In phase 1, we explored barriers to uptake of telehealth and telecare. In phase 2, we used ethnographic methods to build a detailed picture of participants' lives, illness experiences and technology use. In phase 3, we brought users and their carers together with suppliers and providers to derive quality principles for assistive technology products and services. Results: Interviews identified practical, material and organisational barriers to smooth introduction and continued support of assistive technologies. The experience of multi-morbidity was characterised by multiple, mutually reinforcing and inexorably worsening impairments, producing diverse and unique care challenges. Participants and their carers managed these pragmatically, obtaining technologies and adapting the home. Installed technologies were rarely fit for purpose. Support services for technologies made high (and sometimes oppressive) demands on users. Six principles emerged from the workshops. Quality telehealth or telecare is 1) ANCHORED in a shared understanding of what matters to the user; 2) REALISTIC about the natural history of illness; 3) CO-CREATIVE, evolving and adapting solutions with users; 4) HUMAN, supported through interpersonal relationships and social networks; 5) INTEGRATED, through attention to mutual awareness and knowledge sharing; 6) EVALUATED to drive system learning. Conclusions: Technological advances are important, but must be underpinned by industry and service providers following a user-centred approach to design and delivery. For the ARCHIE principles to be realised, the sector requires: (1) a shift in focus from product ('assistive technologies') to performance ('supporting technologies-in-use'); (2) a shift in the commissioning model from standardised to personalised home care contracts; and (3) a shift in the design model from 'walled garden', branded products to inter-operable components that can be combined and used flexibly across devices and platforms. © 2015 Greenhalgh et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Pratt J.J.,Royal Childrens Hospital | Khan K.S.,Center for Primary Care and Public Health
European Journal of Haematology | Year: 2016

Objective: To capture all data meeting a rigid definition of non-anaemic iron deficiency (NAID) and determine whether it is associated with poor outcomes compared with normal iron status and whether iron supplementation improves outcomes in NAID. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: EMBASE, Medline, Web of Science, clinicaltrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and Central from database inception to April 2014. Eligibility criteria: Ferritin <16 μg/L (<12 μg/L if age <5 yr) in the absence of anaemia in observational studies or randomised trials. Where populations were deemed to be sufficiently similar, meta-analysis was undertaken. Results: There were 21 studies included. NAID in pregnancy associated with reduction in birthweight (P = 0.028). Iron supplementation in NAID was associated with improvement in objective scores (P = 0.005) and self-rating (P = 0.03) of fatigue. Meta-analysis was limited and, where possible, was not statistically significant including the comparison of NAID with cardiovascular function in adults (VO2max P = 0.21, RERmax P = 0.68), educational attainment in children (P = 0.14), infant mental (P = 0.29) and psychomotor (P = 0.07) development, and iron supplementation in NAID with educational attainment in language (P = 0.31). Conclusions: There is emerging evidence that NAID is a disease in its own right, deserving of further research in the development of strategies for detection and treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Wherton J.,Center for Primary Care and Public Health | Sugarhood P.,East London NHS Foundation Trust | Procter R.,University of Warwick | Hinder S.,Center for Primary Care and Public Health | Greenhalgh T.,University of Oxford
Implementation Science | Year: 2015

Background: The low uptake of telecare and telehealth services by older people may be explained by the limited involvement of users in the design. If the ambition of 'care closer to home' is to be realised, then industry, health and social care providers must evolve ways to work with older people to co-produce useful and useable solutions. Method: We conducted 10 co-design workshops with users of telehealth and telecare, their carers, service providers and technology suppliers. Using vignettes developed from in-depth ethnographic case studies, we explored participants' perspectives on the design features of technologies and services to enable and facilitate the co-production of new care solutions. Workshop discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Results: Analysis revealed four main themes. First, there is a need to raise awareness and provide information to potential users of assisted living technologies (ALTs). Second, technologies must be highly customisable and adaptable to accommodate the multiple and changing needs of different users. Third, the service must align closely with the individual's wider social support network. Finally, the service must support a high degree of information sharing and coordination. Conclusions: The case vignettes within inclusive and democratic co-design workshops provided a powerful means for ALT users and their carers to contribute, along with other stakeholders, to technology and service design. The workshops identified a need to focus attention on supporting the social processes that facilitate the collective efforts of formal and informal care networks in ALT delivery and use. © 2015 Wherton et al. Source

Hinder S.,Center for Primary Care and Public Health | Greenhalgh T.,Center for Primary Care and Public Health
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2012

Background: Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Method. Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2) by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups) were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours); interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer) about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined) by wider social structures. Results: Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment) and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources). Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints) was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial) and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them. Conclusion: Self-management of diabetes is physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially demanding. Non-engagement with self-management may make sense in the context of low personal resources (e.g. health literacy, resilience) and overwhelming personal, family and social circumstances. Success of self-management as a policy solution will be affected by interacting influences at three levels: [a] at micro level by individuals' dispositions and capabilities; [b] at meso level by roles, relationships and material conditions within the family and in the workplace, school and healthcare organisation; and [c] at macro level by prevailing economic conditions, cultural norms and expectations, and the underpinning logic of the healthcare system. We propose that the research agenda on living with diabetes be extended and the political economy of self-management systematically studied. © 2012 Hinder and Greenhalgh; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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