Center for Primary Care and Prevention

Sun City Center, United States

Center for Primary Care and Prevention

Sun City Center, United States
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Liu T.,Sun Yat Sen University | Tyndale R.F.,University of Toronto | David S.P.,Stanford University | David S.P.,SRI International | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Human Hypertension | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to assess whether cytochrome P450 enzyme 2A6 (CYP2A6) genotypes moderate the association between smoking and hypertension. In this study, 954 Chinese male current smokers from a community-based chronic disease screening project in Guangzhou were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about socio-demographic status, smoking and other health-related behaviors. Blood was collected for DNA extraction and CYP2A6 genotyping. Hypertension was defined according to 2007 ESH-ESC Practice Guidelines. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the interaction between smoking quantity and CYP2A6 genotypes on hypertension after adjusting for age, education level and other potential confounders. Multivariate analyses indicated that smoking more than 15 cigarettes per day significantly increased the risk of hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.21-2.10) compared with smoking 1-15 cigarettes per day, and further suggested that smoking interacted with normal CYP2A6 metabolizer genotype to increase the risk of hypertension. Smokers consuming more than 15 cigarettes per day with normal CYP2A6 metabolizer genotypes had the highest risk of hypertension (OR=2.04, 95% CI=1.11-3.75) compared with those consuming 1-15 cigarettes per day with slower CYP2A6 metabolizer genotypes. These findings demonstrated that smoking quantity was positively associated with hypertension and that CYP2A6 genotypes may moderate this relationship. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

David S.P.,SRI International | David S.P.,Stanford University | David S.P.,Center for Primary Care and Prevention | Hamidovic A.,Northwestern University | And 78 more authors.
Translational Psychiatry | Year: 2012

The identification and exploration of genetic loci that influence smoking behaviors have been conducted primarily in populations of the European ancestry. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study meta-analysis of smoking behavior in African Americans in the Study of Tobacco in Minority Populations Genetics Consortium (n=32 389). We identified one non-coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2036527A) on chromosome 15q25.1 associated with smoking quantity (cigarettes per day), which exceeded genome-wide significance (Β=0.040, s.e.=0.007, P=1.84 × 10 -8). This variant is present in the 5′-distal enhancer region of the CHRNA5 gene and defines the primary index signal reported in studies of the European ancestry. No other SNP reached genome-wide significance for smoking initiation (SI, ever vs never smoking), age of SI, or smoking cessation (SC, former vs current smoking). Informative associations that approached genome-wide significance included three modestly correlated variants, at 15q25.1 within PSMA4, CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 for smoking quantity, which are associated with a second signal previously reported in studies in European ancestry populations, and a signal represented by three SNPs in the SPOCK2 gene on chr10q22.1. The association at 15q25.1 confirms this region as an important susceptibility locus for smoking quantity in men and women of African ancestry. Larger studies will be needed to validate the suggestive loci that did not reach genome-wide significance and further elucidate the contribution of genetic variation to disparities in cigarette consumption, SC and smoking-attributable disease between African Americans and European Americans. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Borkan J.,Brown University | Eaton C.B.,Center for Primary Care and Prevention | Eaton C.B.,Brown University | Novillo-Ortiz D.,Pan American Health Organization | And 4 more authors.
Health Affairs | Year: 2010

From 1978 on, Spain rapidly expanded and strengthened its primary health care system, offering a lesson in how to improve health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. The nation moved to a tax-based system of universal access for the entire population and, at the local level, instituted primary care teams coordinating prevention, health promotion, treatment, and community care. Gains included increases in life expectancy and reductions in infant mortality, with outcomes superior to those in the United States. In 2007 Spain spent $2,671 per person, or 8.5 percent of its gross domestic product on health care, versus 16 percent in the United States. Despite concerns familiar to Americans - about future shortages of primary care physicians and relatively low status and pay for these physicians - the principles underlying the Spanish reforms offer lessons for the United States. ©2010 Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

PubMed | University of Rhode Island, Center for Primary Care and Prevention, Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center and The Miriam Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2015

Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as smoking used cigarettes. Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes (butts), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a U.S. prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and female inmates at baseline. Prevalence of smoking used cigarettes was assessed using 3 questions; 1 about sharing cigarettes with strangers, 1 about smoking a found cigarette, and 1 about smoking previously used cigarettes. Factors associated with those who engaged in smoking used cigarettes were then compared with those who did not engage in smoking used cigarettes. A majority of participants (61.5%) endorsed engaging in at least 1 smoking used cigarette behavior in the past prior to incarceration. Those who engaged in these behaviors were more likely to have a higher degree of nicotine dependence, to have started smoking regularly at a younger age, and to have lived in an unstable living environment prior to incarceration. Our results indicate that a history of smoking used cigarettes is common among incarcerated persons in the United States. Consistent with our hypothesis, engaging in smoking used cigarettes was found to be associated with a higher degree of nicotine dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record

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