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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

Vien L.T.M.,University of Oxford | AbuOun M.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Morrison V.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency | Thomson N.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | And 7 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

The qnrS1 gene induces reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in enterobacteria. We investigated the structure, antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype, and antimicrobial resistance gene characteristics of qnrS1 plasmids from hospitalized patients and community controls in southern Vietnam. We found that the antimicrobial susceptibilities, resistance gene characteristics, and plasmid structures of qnrS1 plasmids from the hospital differed from those from the community. Our data imply that the characteristics of the two plasmid groups are indicative of distinct selective pressures in the differing environments. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

De Greeff A.,Wageningen University | Wisselink H.J.,Wageningen University | De Bree F.M.,Wageningen University | Schultsz C.,Center for Poverty related Communicable Diseases | And 5 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2011

Background: Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes infections in young piglets. S. suis is a heterogeneous species. Thirty-three different capsular serotypes have been described, that differ in virulence between as well as within serotypes. Results: In this study, the correlation between gene content, serotype, phenotype and virulence among 55 S. suis strains was studied using Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH). Clustering of CGH data divided S. suis isolates into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A isolates could be discriminated from cluster B isolates based on the protein expression of extracellular factor (EF). Cluster A contained serotype 1 and 2 isolates that were correlated with virulence. Cluster B mainly contained serotype 7 and 9 isolates. Genetic similarity was observed between serotype 7 and serotype 2 isolates that do not express muramidase released protein (MRP) and EF (MRP -EF-), suggesting these isolates originated from a common founder. Profiles of 25 putative virulence-associated genes of S. suis were determined among the 55 isolates. Presence of all 25 genes was shown for cluster A isolates, whereas cluster B isolates lacked one or more putative virulence genes. Divergence of S. suis isolates was further studied based on the presence of 39 regions of difference. Conservation of genes was evaluated by the definition of a core genome that contained 78% of all ORFs in P1/7. Conclusions: In conclusion, we show that CGH is a valuable method to study distribution of genes or gene clusters among isolates in detail, yielding information on genetic similarity, and virulence traits of S. suis isolates. © 2011 de Greeff et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Radosevic K.,Crucell | Rodriguez A.,Crucell | Lemckert A.A.C.,Crucell | Van Der Meer M.,Crucell | And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2010

The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is comprised of an adjuvant portion of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein fused to and admixed with the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. This vaccine confers short-term protection against malaria infection, with an efficacy of about 50%, and induces particularly B-cell and CD4+ T-cell responses. In the present study, we tested by the hypothesis that the Th1 immune response to CS protein, in particular the CD8+ T-cell response, which is needed for strong and lasting malaria immunity, is boosted to sustainable levels vectors adenovirus and 26 with an homologous insert 35 (Ad35.CS/Ad26.CS). In this study, we evaluated immune responses induced with vaccination regimens based on an adjuvant-containing, yeast-produced complete CS protein followed by two recombinant low-seroprevalence adenoviruses expressing P. falciparum CS antigen, Ad35.CS (subgroup B) and Ad26.CS (subgroup D). Our results show that (i) the yeast (Hansenula polymorpha)produced, adjuvanted full-length CS protein is highly potent in inducing high CS-specific humoral responses in mice but produces poor T-cell responses, (ii) the Ad35.CS vector boosts the gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ+) CD8+ T-cell response induced by the CS protein immunization and shifts the immune response toward the Th1 type, and (iii) a three-component heterologous vaccination comprised of a CS protein prime followed by boosts with Ad35.CS and Ad26.CS elicits an even more robust and sustainable IFN-γ+ CD8+ T-cell response than one- or two-component regimens. The Ad35.CS/Ad26.CS combination boosted particularly the IFN-γ+ and tumor necrosis factor alpha-positive (TNF-α+) T cells, confirming the shift of the immune response from the Th2 type to the Th1 type. These results support the notion of first immunizations of infants with an adjuvanted CS protein vaccine, followed by a booster Ad35.CS/Ad26.CS vaccine at a later age, to induce lasting protection against malaria for which the Th1 response and immune memory is required. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Bronze M.,University of Witwatersrand | Steegen K.,Virco | Wallis C.L.,University of Witwatersrand | de Wolf H.,Virco | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

To date, the majority of HIV-1 phenotypic resistance testing has been performed with subtype B virus backbones (e.g. HXB2). However, the relevance of using this backbone to determine resistance in non-subtype B HIV-1 viruses still needs to be assessed. From 114 HIV-1 subtype C clinical samples (36 ARV-naïve, 78 ARV-exposed), pol amplicons were produced and analyzed for phenotypic resistance using both a subtype B- and C-backbone in which the pol fragment was deleted. Phenotypic resistance was assessed in resulting recombinant virus stocks (RVS) for a series of antiretroviral drugs (ARV's) and expressed as fold change (FC), yielding 1660 FC comparisons. These Antivirogram® derived FC values were categorized as having resistant or sensitive susceptibility based on biological cut-off values (BCOs). The concordance between resistance calls obtained for the same clinical sample but derived from two different backbones (i.e. B and C) accounted for 86.1% (1429/1660) of the FC comparisons. However, when taking the assay variability into account, 95.8% (1590/1660) of the phenotypic data could be considered as being concordant with respect to their resistance call. No difference in the capacity to detect resistance associated with M184V, K103N and V106M mutations was noted between the two backbones. The following was concluded: (i) A high level of concordance was shown between the two backbone phenotypic resistance profiles; (ii) Assay variability is largely responsible for discordant results (i.e. for FC values close to BCO); (iii) Confidence intervals should be given around the BCO's, when assessing resistance in HIV-1 subtype C; (iv) No systematic resistance under- or overcalling of subtype C amplicons in the B-backbone was observed; (v) Virus backbone subtype sequence variability outside the pol region does not contribute to phenotypic FC values. In conclusion the HXB2 virus backbone remains an acceptable vector for phenotyping HIV-1 subtype C pol amplicons. © 2012 Bronze et al. Source

Buu T.N.,Pham Ngoc Thach Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital | Quy H.T.,Pham Ngoc Thach Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital | Qui N.C.,Pham Ngoc Thach Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital | Lan N.T.N.,Pham Ngoc Thach Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the increase in tuberculosis (TB) notifi cation rates among young adults in Vietnam refl ects increased transmission in the population at large. METHOD: Trends of case notifi cation rates of new smear-positive TB were calculated from routinely reported data of district TB units over the period 1996-2005. Results from repeated tuberculin surveys among children aged 6-9 years were obtained to calculate the trend in annual risk of TB infection (ARTI). FINDINGS: From 1996 to 2006, notifi cation rates in the age group 15-24 years increased by 4.3% per year, and more so in highly urbanised (6.7%) than in rural districts (1.7%). The ARTI in urban districts declined from 2.4% in 1992 to 1.2% in 1998 and 0.9% in 2005. In rural districts, the ARTI increased from 0.7% in 1991 to 1.2% in 1997, and then declined to 0.9% in 2006. CONCLUSION: The increase in TB notifi cation rates among young adults in Ho Chi Minh Province is accompanied by a decrease in ARTI in children. This suggests that the trend in TB notifi cation among young adults reflects increased rates of progression from infection to disease and/or increased transmission within this age group, rather than increased transmission in the population at large. © 2010 The Union. Source

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