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Storey D.J.,University of Edinburgh | Storey D.J.,Edinburgh Cancer Center | Mclaren D.B.,Edinburgh Cancer Center | Atkinson M.A.,Edinburgh Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Little is known about the prevalence and associations of clinically relevant fatigue (CRF) in recurrence-free prostate cancer survivors.Patients and methods: Four hundred and sixteen recurrence-free prostate cancer survivors who were >1 year post-radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy were surveyed. The prevalence of CRF (defined as Brief Fatigue Inventory >3) was determined and compared with a noncancer control group. Other measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, International Prostate Symptom Score, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Relationships between these factors and CRF were explored in univariate and multivariate analyses.Results: Analyzable data were obtained from 91% (377/416) of patients. The prevalence of CRF was 29% (108/377) versus 16% (10/63) in the controls (P = 0.031). CRF was more common in post-radiotherapy than in post-prostatectomy 33% (79/240) versus 22% (29/133), P = 0.024. However, when other factors (current depression, anxiety, urinary symptoms, medical comorbidities, pain and insomnia) were controlled for, previous treatment did not predict CRF. Current depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale ≥8 was by far the strongest association [odds ratio 9.9, 95% confidence interval 4.2-23.5)].Conclusions: Almost one-third of recurrence-free prostate cancer survivors report CRF. Depression, anxiety, urinary symptoms, pain and insomnia measured at outcome are more strongly associated than type of cancer treatment previously received. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Pinnock H.,University of Edinburgh | Hanley J.,Napier University | McCloughan L.,EHealth Research Group | Todd A.,EHealth Research Group | And 9 more authors.
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2013

Objective: To test the effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services such that intervention and control groups have access to the same clinical care. Design: Researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting: UK primary care (Lothian, Scotland). Participants: Adults with at least one admission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the year before randomisation. We excluded people who had other significant lung disease, who were unable to provide informed consent or complete the study, or who had other significant social or clinical problems. Interventions: Participants were recruited between 21 May 2009 and 28 March 2011, and centrally randomised to receive telemonitoring or conventional self monitoring. Using a touch screen, telemonitoring participants recorded a daily questionnaire about symptoms and treatment use, and monitored oxygen saturation using linked instruments. Algorithms, based on the symptom score, generated alerts if readings were omitted or breached thresholds. Both groups received similar care from existing clinical services. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was time to hospital admission due to COPD exacerbation up to one year after randomisation. Other outcomes included number and duration of admissions, and validated questionnaire assessments of health related quality of life (using St George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ)), anxiety or depression (or both), self efficacy, knowledge, and adherence to treatment. Analysis was intention to treat. Results: Of 256 patients completing the study, 128 patients were randomised to telemonitoring and 128 to usual care; baseline characteristics of each group were similar. The number of days to admission did not differ significantly between groups (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.44). Over one year, the mean number of COPD admissions was similar in both groups (telemonitoring 1.2 admissions per person (standard deviation 1.9) v control 1.1 (1.6); P=0.59). Mean duration of COPD admissions over one year was also similar between groups (9.5 days per person (standard deviation 19.1) v 8.8 days (15.9); P=0.88). The intervention had no significant effect on SGRQ scores between groups (68.2 (standard deviation 16.3) v 67.3 (17.3); adjusted mean difference 1.39 (95% confidence interval -1.57 to 4.35)), or on other questionnaire outcomes. Conclusions In participants with a history of admission for exacerbations of COPD, telemonitoring was not effective in postponing admissions and did not improve quality of life. The positive effect of telemonitoring seen in previous trials could be due to enhancement of the underpinning clinical service rather than the telemonitoring communication. Trial registration ISRCTN96634935.

Nahhas M.,University of Edinburgh | Bhopal R.,Center for Population Health science | Anandan C.,University of Edinburgh | Elton R.,University of Edinburgh | And 2 more authors.
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between obesity and asthma, but there remains considerable uncertainty about whether this reflects an underlying causal relationship. AIMS: To investigate the association between obesity and asthma in pre-pubertal children and to investigate the roles of airway obstruction and atopy as possible causal mechanisms. METHODS: We conducted an age- and sex-matched case-control study of 1,264 6- to 8-year-old schoolchildren with and without asthma recruited from 37 randomly selected schools in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and skin fold thickness of the 632 children with asthma were compared with those of the 632 control children without asthma. Associations between obesity and asthma, adjusted for other potential risk factors, were assessed separately in boys and girls using conditional logistic regression analysis. The possible mediating roles of atopy and airway obstruction were studied by investigating the impact of incorporating data on sensitisation to common aeroallergens and measurements of lung function. RESULTS: BMI was associated with asthma in boys (odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.20; adjusted OR = 1.11, 95% CI, 1.03-1.19) and girls (OR = 1.37, 95% CI, 1.26-1.50; adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI, 1.23-1.56). Adjusting for forced expiratory volume in 1 s had a negligible impact on these associations, but these were attenuated following adjustment for allergic sensitisation, particularly in girls (girls: OR = 1.25; 95% CI, 0.96-1.60; boys: OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.99-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: BMI is associated with asthma in pre-pubertal Saudi boys and girls; this effect does not appear to be mediated through respiratory obstruction, but in girls this may at least partially be mediated through increased risk of allergic sensitisation. © 2014 Primary Care Respiratory Society/Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Oh J.,Seoul National University | Giang K.B.,Hanoi Medical University | Kien V.D.,Center for Population Health science | Nam Y.-S.,Seoul National University | And 3 more authors.
Global Health Action | Year: 2016

Background: Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective: This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design: This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1) skilled antenatal care and (2) skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities - low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location - were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities). Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results: In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011) and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011). The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions: Even thoughVietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups. © 2016 Hoang Van Minh et al.

Aitken M.,Center for Population Health science
Environmental Politics | Year: 2012

Climate change has come to hold a central position within many policy arenas. However, a particular framing of climate change and climate science, underpinned by modernist assumptions, dominates policy discourse. This leads to restricted policy responses reflecting particular interests and socio-political imaginaries. There is little public debate concerning this framing or the assumptions underpinning approaches to climate policy. The implications of this are illustrated by considering the ways in which UK planning policy has adapted to reflect commitments to mitigate climate change. It is shown that the importance attributed to climate change mitigation has had negative impacts on democratic involvement in planning processes. Given the uncertainty and high stakes of climate science (typical of post-normal science), value may be gained by incorporating the views and perspectives of 'extended peer communities', to question not only the processes and findings of climate science but also the ways in which the science is interpreted and responded to through policy. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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