Tekwu E.M.,University of Yaounde I |
Tekwu E.M.,University of Ghana |
Bosompem K.M.,University of Ghana |
Anyan W.K.,University of Ghana |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology Research | Year: 2017
Schistosomiasis is a Neglected Tropical Diseases which can be prevented with mass deworming chemotherapy. The reliance on a single drug, praziquantel, is a motivation for the search of novel antischistosomal compounds. This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of the stem bark and roots of Rauwolfia vomitoria against two life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Both plant parts were found to be active against cercariae and adult worms. Within 2 h of exposure all cercariae were killed at a concentration range of 62.5-1000 μg/mL and 250-1000 μg/mL of R. vomitoria stem bark and roots, respectively. The LC50 values determined for the stem bark after 1 and 2 h of exposure were 207.4 and 61.18 μg/mL, respectively. All adult worms exposed to the concentrations range of 250-1000 μg/mL for both plant parts died within 120 h of incubation. The cytotoxic effects against HepG2 and Chang liver cell assessed using MTT assay method indicated that both plant extracts which were inhibitory to the proliferation of cell lines with IC50 > 20 μg/mL appear to be safe. This report provides the first evidence of in vitro schistosomicidal potency of R. vomitoria with the stem bark being moderately, but relatively, more active and selective against schistosome parasites. This suggests the presence of promising medicinal constituent(s). © 2017 Emmanuel Mouafo Tekwu et al.
Thomford K.P.,Center for Plant Medicine Research |
Sarfo B.S.,Center for Plant Medicine Research |
Edoh D.A.,Center for Plant Medicine Research
Journal of Herbal Medicine | Year: 2015
A prospective randomised double blind parallel controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of a standardised Ghanaian polyherbal product EAF-2011 comprising: Alchornea cordifolia, Eugenia caryophyllata, Psidium guajava, Tridax procumbens and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, used in the management of skin diseases. A total number of 84 participants aged between 8 and 45 years who were clinically diagnosed with superficial mycoses were recruited into the study and followed up for 4 months. Participants were randomised to receive 2%, 5% or 10% (w/w) concentrations of the finished herbal product or the control treatment of Whitfield ointment. Primary efficacy outcome (complete cure): defined as total signs and symptoms score (TSSS) of zero and where applicable mycological cure also defined as a negative mycological culture and microscopic examination was achieved by 30.0%, 34.78%, 75.0% and 91.30% of the control, 2%, 5% and 10% (w/w) EAF-2011 treatments respectively. Safety analyses using urine, biochemical and haematological parameters were normal at the end of the study. Also, no adverse reactions were recorded during the study. The study thus showed all the treatments to be safe and effective for the management of dermatophytes with 10% (w/w) finished herbal product being the most effective treatment. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
PubMed | University of Yaounde I, University of Ghana, Center for Plant Medicine Research and Yaounde Emergency Center
Type: | Journal: Biomarker research | Year: 2016
It is crucial to develop new antischistosomal drugs since there is no vaccine and the whole world is relying on only a single drug for the treatment of schistosomiasis. One of the obstacles to the development of drugs is the absence of the high throughput objective screening methods to assess drug compounds efficacy. Thus for identification of new drug compounds candidates, fast and accurate in vitro assays are unavoidable and more research efforts in the field of drug discovery can target schistosomula. This review presents a substantial overview of the present state of in vitro drug sensitivity assays developed so far for the determination of anti-schistosomula activity of drug compounds, natural products and derivatives using newly transformed schistosomula (NTS). It highlights some of the challenges involved in in vitro compound screening using NTS and the way forward.
PubMed | Ghana Police Hospital, University of Ghana, Center for Plant Medicine Research, Ministry of Health and Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
Type: | Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM | Year: 2015
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30) patients (66 11 years) completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL) improved (P = 0.001). Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 19.0 to 16.2 11.8ng/mL (P = 0.002); fPSA from 6.1 4.8 to 3.9 2.9ng/mL (P = 0.045); and prostate volume from 101.8 41.3 to 54.5 24.8cm(3)(P = 0.023). C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL.
PubMed | Center for Plant Medicine Research, Noguchi Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University and Nagasaki International University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2015
Despite remarkable advances in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains incurable due to the incomplete elimination of the replication-competent virus, which persists in latent reservoirs. Strategies for targeting HIV reservoirs for eradication that involves reactivation of latent proviruses while protecting uninfected cells by cART are urgently needed for cure of HIV infection. We screened medicinal plant extracts for compounds that could reactivate the latent HIV-1 provirus and identified a procyanidin trimer C1 derived from Theobroma cacao as a potent activator of the provirus in human T cells latently infected with HIV-1. This reactivation largely depends on the NF-B and MAPK signaling pathways because either overexpression of a super-repressor form of IB or pretreatment with a MEK inhibitor U0126 diminished provirus reactivation by C1. A pan-PKC inhibitor significantly blocked the phorbol ester-induced but not the C1-induced HIV-1 reactivation. Although C1-induced viral gene expression persisted for as long as 48 h post-stimulation, NF-B-dependent transcription peaked at 12 h post-stimulation and then quickly declined, suggesting Tat-mediated self-sustainment of HIV-1 expression. These results suggest that procyanidin C1 trimer is a potential compound for reactivation of latent HIV-1 reservoirs.
Ayine-Tora D.M.,University of Auckland |
Ayine-Tora D.M.,University of Ghana |
Kingsford-Adaboh R.,University of Ghana |
Asomaning W.A.,University of Ghana |
And 6 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2016
Fungal pathogens continue to pose challenges to humans and plants despite efforts to control them. Two coumarins, robustic acid and thonningine-C isolated from Millettia thonningii, show promising activity against the fungus Candida albicans with minimum fungicidal concentration of 1.0 and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. Molecular modelling against the putative bio-molecular target, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), revealed a plausible binding mode for the active compounds, in which the hydroxyl group binds with a methionine backbone carboxylic group blocking access to the iron catalytic site. This binding disrupts the synthesis of several important sterols for the survival of fungi. © 2016 by the authors.
Ocloo A.,University of Ghana |
Ocloo A.,University of Cambridge |
Appiah-Opong R.,University of Ghana |
Chama M.A.,University of Ghana |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2015
Taraxacum officinale leaves are popular among Ghanaians as vegetable and/or beverage while extracts of Taraxacum officinale,Paulliniia pinnata and Thonningia sanguinea are present in common herbal remedies widely available without prescription in Ghana. This study was therefore aimed to identify possible interactions between these medicinal plant extracts and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. The effects of these extracts on mitochondrial oxygen consumption were therefore investigated in situ using permeabilized mouse cardiac muscle fiber preparations and a substrate-inhibitor titration. The results showed that the ethanolic fraction of T.officinale leaves significantly increased the respiration rate in presence of rotenone and the state 3/state 2 ratio (respiratory control ratio) while the ethanolic extract of P.pinnata stem significantly decreased succinate-stimulated respiration. The aqueous extract of T.sanguinea also significantly decreased respiration in presence of rotenone. Practical Applications: The present study revealed that the extracts from Taraxacum officinale, Paulliniia pinnata and Thonningia sanguinea exhibited the potential to influence mitochondrial respiratory chain function. The result presented in this study provides evidence that T.officinale offers an opportunity to be explored as a natural energy booster. The decrease in succinate-stimulated respiration caused by the extract from P.pinnata provides further evidence for its use as a fish poison and strongly suggests that its use in herbal remedies may be detrimental. Furthermore, information about similar effects caused by traditional remedies would be useful not only in the discovery of novel therapeutic agents but also identification of extracts with the potential for long term toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ocloo A.,University of Ghana |
Okpattah W.E.,University of Ghana |
Quasie O.,Center for Plant Medicine Research |
Sakyiamah M.M.,Center for Plant Medicine Research |
Okine L.K.N.,University of Ghana
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2014
Concurrent administration of aqueous extract of C. sanguinolenta was earlier reported to alter the pharmacokinetics of artesunate consequently resulting in an increase in the clearance rate, which could cause sub-therapeutic levels of dihydroartemisinin of artesunate leading to reduced efficacy. In the present study, the effect of aqueous extract of C. sanguinolenta (Cryp) on the effectiveness of artesunate (Art) against Plasmodium berghei in male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Twenty (20) female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four (4) treatment groups (1 to 4). Groups 2 (Cryp) and 3 (Cryp/Art) served as test groups, which were pretreated with aqueous extract of C. sanguinolenta for two weeks whilst groups 1 (no drug) and 4 (Art) served as negative and positive controls, respectively and were given water. The rats were inoculated with P. berghei after the two weeks pretreatment period and were either not treated (no drug) or treated with artesunate (Art) or C. sanguinolenta (Cryp and Cryp/Art) 2 days post-inoculation. Parasitemia and chemosuppression were then determined in 4 and 6-day suppressive tests. The parasitemia in group 3 rats (Cryp/Art) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (270%) than in group 4 (Art) on day 8. Consequently, the chemosuppression of artesunate only group was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (133%) than that of the concurrently administered Cryp/Art group. The findings show that concurrent usage of C. sanguinolenta and artesunate reduces the effectiveness of artesunate as an antimalarial. Therefore, patients should be advised on the implication of the practice of taking C. sanguinolenta and artesunate concurrently. © 2014 Augustine Ocloo et al.
Accuracy of point-of-care testing for circulatory cathodic antigen in the detection of schistosome infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis [Précision des tests de détection de l’antigène cathodique circulant réalisés sur les lieux des soins pour le diagnostic des schistosomiases: Revue systématique et méta-analyse] [Exactitud de las pruebas en el punto de atención en busca de antígenos catódicos circulantes en la detección de infección por esquistosomas: Una revisión sistemática y un metaanálisis]
Danso-Appiah A.,University of Ghana |
Minton J.,University of Glasgow |
Boamah D.,Center for Plant Medicine Research |
Otchere J.,University of Ghana |
And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2016
Objective To assess the accuracy of point-of-care testing for circulatory cathodic antigen in the diagnosis of schistosome infection. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and other bibliographic databases for studies published until 30 September 2015 that described circulatory cathodic antigen testing compared against one to three Kato–Katz tests per subject – for Schistosoma mansoni – or the filtration of one 10-ml urine sample per subject – for S. haematobium. We extracted the numbers of true positives, false positives, true negatives and false negatives for the antigen testing and performed meta-analyses using a bivariate hierarchical regression model. Findings Twenty-six studies published between 1994 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. In the detection of S. mansoni, a single antigen test gave a pooled sensitivity of 0.90 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.84–0.94) and a pooled specificity of 0.56 (95% CI: 0.39–0.71; n = 7) when compared against a single Kato–Katz test. The corresponding values from comparisons with two to three Kato–Katz tests per subject were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80–0.88) and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.53–0.76; n = 14), respectively. There appeared to be no advantage in using three antigen tests per subject instead of one. When compared against the results of urine filtration, antigen testing for S. haematobium showed poor sensitivity and poor specificity. The performance of antigen testing was better in areas of high endemicity than in settings with low endemicity. Conclusion Antigen testing may represent an effective tool for monitoring programmes for the control of S. mansoni. © 2016, World Health Organization. All rights reserved.
PubMed | University of Auckland, University of Ghana, Center for Plant Medicine Research and Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016
Fungal pathogens continue to pose challenges to humans and plants despite efforts to control them. Two coumarins, robustic acid and thonningine-C isolated from