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Buzzards Bay, MA, United States

Bauer L.S.,Northern Research Station | Duan J.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gould J.R.,Center for Plant Health Science and Technology | Van Driesche R.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Canadian Entomologist | Year: 2015

First detected in North America in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding beetle from Asia, has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus; Oleaceae) trees. Although few parasitoids attack EAB in North America, three parasitoid species were found attacking EAB in China: the egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and two larval parasitoids Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In 2007, classical biological control of EAB began in the United States of America after release of these three species was approved. In 2013, release of the larval parasitoids was approved in Canada. Research continues at study sites in Michigan, United States of America where the establishment, prevalence, and spread of O. agrili and T. planipennisi have been monitored since 2008. However, establishment of S. agrili remains unconfirmed in northern areas, and its release is now restricted to regions below the 40th parallel. In 2015, approval for release of Spathius galinae Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an EAB larval parasitoid from the Russian Far East, may be granted in the United States of America. Researchers are guardedly optimistic that a complex of introduced and native natural enemies will regulate EAB densities below a tolerance threshold for survival of ash species or genotypes in forested ecosystems. © Entomological Society of Canada 2015.

Roda A.,Center for Plant Health Science and Technology | Kairo M.,University of Florida | Damian T.,Husbandry and Fisheries | Franken F.,Husbandry and Fisheries | And 3 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2011

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important palm pest, was accidentally introduced into the Caribbean. A monitoring programme was established to determine the population level and distribution of infestations on Aruba and Curacao through the use of commercially available pheromone traps. Due to the small size of the islands and limited distribution of palms, eradication may be feasible using a combination of trapping, timely disposal of infested palms and curative and prophylactic chemical treatments. These studies on the pest in the Caribbean were used to help design a USDA plant health emergency response through the development of Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine New Pest Response Guidelines and provide an effective emergency response programme for other Caribbean Islands and the Americas. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 OEPP/EPPO.

Farris R.E.,Center for Plant Health Science and Technology
Journal of insect science (Online) | Year: 2010

The thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an invasive pest that poses a significant economical threat to U.S. agriculture and trade. In this study, DNA sequence data and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were utilized to develop a molecular diagnostic marker for S. dorsalis. The DNA sequence variation from the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was analyzed from various thrips species, including S. dorsalis. A primer set and polymerase chain reaction cycling parameters were designed for the amplification of a single marker fragment of S. dorsalis ITS2 rDNA. Specificity tests performed on ten thrips species, efficacy tests performed on fifteen S. dorsalis populations, and tests on primer sensitivity and robustness all demonstrated the diagnostic utility of this marker. This diagnostic PCR assay provides a quick, simple, and reliable molecular technique to be used in the identification of S. dorsalis.

Domingue M.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Lakhtakia A.,Pennsylvania State University | Pulsifer D.P.,Pennsylvania State University | Hall L.P.,Pennsylvania State University | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nanobioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected.

Booth E.,University of Maine, United States | Booth E.,Center for Plant Health Science and Technology | Alyokhin A.,University of Maine, United States
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2016

Agricultural systems are often simultaneously impacted by multiple stressors. In our study, we investigated the effects of two commonly occurring viruses of potato, Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) on host plant selection and utilization across various spatial scales by the Colorado potato beetle. Adult beetles selected PLRV-infected foliage in the cage choice trails, and larvae that fed exclusively on PLRV-infected foliage developed into larger adults. PVY-infected foliage was avoided in the cage trials and had no effect on the weight of developing adults. In field trials, preference and utilization of potato plants was more dependent on plant size than on virus infection. These results demonstrate that while virus-infected plants can cause physiological changes that influence beetle preference, beetle abundance and/or distribution is driven by a more complex array of factors at the field level. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of investigating the applicability of laboratory findings at the field level. © 2016 The Potato Association of America

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