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Senguttuvel P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Senguttuvel P.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics | Senguttuvel P.,Directrte of Rice Research | Vijayalakshmi C.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

The tolerant genotypes have compensating mechanism of Na+ exclusion and K+ absorption which buffers to excessive salt stress, whereas susceptible genotypes respond quickly to salinity and did not recover after a week of salinity leading to complete death of whole plants. The reduced level of CO2 assimilation, stomatal closure, transpiration rate, exclusion of Na+ ion and K+ absorption and increased level of antioxidant enzymes serve as a potential indicator in identification of tolerant genotypes at early seedling stage. Therefore, screening of genotypes at seedling stage by using these criteria would be quite effective and time saving method.

Radhamani T.,Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute TNAU | Sassikumar D.,Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute TNAU | Packiaraj D.,Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute TNAU | Packiaraj D.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics | Ravi V.,Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute TNAU
Research on Crops | Year: 2015

Dry bold unhusked seeds of paddy variety ADT (R) 47 were mutagenized with gamma rays (150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 gy) and with EMS (80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 mM). The M4 generation comprising 652 mutants derived through pedigree selection was raised during rabi 2014. In this study, the first three components in the PCA analysis contributed 75.9% of the variability among the mutant lines evaluated for different quantitative traits. Other PCs (3-7) had eigen values less than 1. Among the mutant lines viz., 441 (300-96- 1), 456 (300-124-1), 457 (300-126-1), 454 (300-122-1), 395 (300-49-1), 404 (300-54-3), 412 (300-62-1), 452 (300-113-1), 396 (300-50-1), 400 (300-53-2) and 402 (300-54-1) showed extremely high positive PC 1 scores reflecting highest contribution from plant height, panicle length, 100-grain weight and single plant yield. Hence, the high yielding genotypes those attained high positive PC 1 score can be effectively used in the hybridization programme to produce early genotype with well exerted panicle and maximum yield.

Radhamani T.,Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute TNAU | Sassikumar D.,Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute TNAU | Packiaraj D.,Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute TNAU | Packiaraj D.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics | And 2 more authors.
Vegetos | Year: 2015

Dry bold unhusked seeds of paddy variety ADT (R ) 47 were exposed to gamma rays (150 gy, 200 gy, 250 gy, 300 gy, and 350 gy) and with EMS (80 mM, 100 mM, 120 mM, 140 mM and 160 mM). The M4 generation comprising 652 mutants derived through pedigree selection was raised during rabi 2014. The analysis of variance for seven quantitative traits revealed that the mean sum of squares due to mutant genotypes were highly significant for all the characters studied indicating genetic variability among the mutants. Genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV) were moderate for number of productive tillers and single plant yield. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance were observed in no of productive tillers per plant and single plant yield and high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance were recorded in the traits viz., panicle weight and 100 grain weight indicated that genetic improvement could be done by simple phenotypic selection. High heritability coupled with low genetic advance were recorded in the traits viz., days to fifty percent flowering, plant height, panicle length indicated that the traits could be exploited by heterosis breeding. © 2015, Society for Plant Research. All rights reserved.

Sudha R.,Central Agricultural Research Institute | Balamohan T.N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women | Soorianathasundaram K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Manivannan N.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics | Rabindran R.,Center for Plant Protection Studies
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The present investigations were undertaken to evaluate the F2 intergeneric population of Carica papaya (var. Pusa Nanha, CP 50 and CO 7) and Vasconcellea cauliflora for PRSV resistance. Investigations were also made to estimate the mean performance, genetic parameters governing different traits and reaction to the PRSV in the F2 population. Among the crosses, Pusa Nanha×V. cauliflora recorded superior mean performance for fruit yield, number of fruits per tree and fruit biochemical parameters than other two crosses in F2 generation. Mean performance for papain recovery per fruit and the enzyme activity were high in CP 50×V. cauliflora. Fruit quality parameters were high in CO 7×V. cauliflora. Desirable mean performance for days taken for disease after inoculation and disease intensity score were recorded by Pusa Nanha×V. cauliflora. Among the various characters studied, higher GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean were registered by the cross Pusa Nanha×V. cauliflora for all the morphological characters and fruit yield parameters. From the F2 population 24 plus trees were selected for further evaluation based on their performance viz., morphological, yield, quality and biochemical characters and reaction to PRSV. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Ragini S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Subramanian A.,Coconut Research Station | Nirmalakumari A.,Center for excellence in millets | Bapu J.R.K.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2015

Presence of genetic diversity is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of any crop. As lodging and associated grain loss is a problem in kodo millet, a study was undertaken to characterize and assess the diversity in kodo millet germplasm accessions for culm strength and grain yield-related traits. Principal component and cluster analyses were performed for grouping the genotypes and to identify the traits that contributed significantly to the diversity in kodo millet. Cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into four main clusters. Cluster I had highest values for most of the traits, except internode length and grain yield. Cluster IV had smallest mean values for all studied traits. The genotypes in Cluster II had highest values for grain yield and test weight. Cluster III was intermediate in performance for most of the traits, hence genotypes in Cluster I could be used for improving culm-related traits and test weight, and those in Cluster II for improving grain yield and test weight and Cluster III for improving earliness. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Senguttuvel P.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics | Vijayalakshmi C.,ADAC | Thiyagarajan K.,TNAU | Kannanbapu J.R.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics | And 3 more authors.
Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2014

Salinity is a serious problem all over the world with an average of 830 M ha being affected. In India, it's about 13.3 M ha with coastal and inland salinity. The present study focused on effects of salinity on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange parameters and osmotic potential in different salt concentration. The chlorophyll content reduced as salinity level increases and chlorophyll a and b concentration coincides with decrease in Fv/Fm ratio. The genotype IR72593 exhibited better survival response than the susceptible genotype IR29. The sensitive cultivar IR29 responds to salinity stress quickly and did not recover after one week of salinity stress which led to complete plant death. Tolerant genotypes showed lower reduction in gas exchange parameters, while IR29 showed sudden reduction during the initial hours of salt stress and decreased at 312 hours due to complete death of plants. Osmotic potential becomes negative with increase in salinity level irrespective of genotypes; however tolerant genotype responds lower than sensitive genotype. This differential response of tolerant genotypes to salinity stress is due to the reduced transpiration rate and closure of stomatal openings during stress period, with no significant change in chlorophyll content. The transpiration rate and stomatal conductance is positively associated with intake of Na ions into the plant system. © Society for the Advancement of Breeding Research in Asia and Oceania (SABRAO) 2014.

Revathi S.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics | Arumugam Pillai M.,Agricultural Research Station
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2015

Tissue culture techniques can be used as a source for genetic variability by means of genetic modifications through the process of in vitro cultures. This technique has been widely used for breeding purposes, especially for stress tolerance selection, which severely limits the rice production. In the present study, performances of rice genotypes were analyzed using different concentrations of Sodium Chloride (NaCl). Four rice genotypes viz., ADT 43, ASD 16, Basmati 370 and Pokkali were used for in vitro stress induction study. Callus was initiated in MS medium with 2 mg/1 2, 4-D and different concentration of NaCl viz., 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 per cent were added with the medium to create salt stress. Statistical analysis revealed that all the genotypes and treatments and their interaction effect were significantly different from each other. Among the four genotypes studied Pokkali was significantly superior for callus induction with 50.19 per cent followed by ASD 16, ADT 43 and Basmati 370 with 46.74 per cent, 43.56 per cent and 33.27 per cent respectively. When the callus for genotypes were transferred to regeneration media in the same level of NaCl stress (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 per cent) highest level of regeneration was realized in Pokkali (56.93 per cent) followed by ASD 16 (53 per cent), ADT 43 (47.93 per cent) and Basmati 370 (40.07 per cent). Similar trend was also observed for salt stressed callus proline content. This proline content analysis further suggests potential salinity tolerance in the rice genotypes. © Global Science Publications.

Ulaganathan V.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics | Nirmalakumari A.,Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics
Plant Archives | Year: 2013

Present study was conducted to evaluate 305 fingermillet germplasm accessions for phenotypic selection of superior genotypes based on the genetic variability and correlation studies using 13 characters. Highly significant mean sum of squares due to genotypes and wide range of variability were noticed for all the characters studied. The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability were high for single plant grain yield. Though heritability value was high for single plant grain yield the dependable character, the genetic advance is low. Hence, direct phenotypic selection for single plant grain yield might not be effective and successful. So, the phenotypic selection of independent traits should be concentrated to simultaneously improve the grain yield. In addition to high coefficients of variability, the characters such as flag leaf blade width, flag leaf sheath length and width, thousand grain weight, productive tillers, finger length and finger number had high heritability and genetic advance. However, productive tillers, thousand grain weight and flag leaf blade length alone are positively and significantly correlated with single plant grain yield. So, the genotypes viz., TNEc 0788 having maximum number of productive tillers, TNEc 0153 having the highest thousand grain weight and TNEc 0407 having lengthiest flag leaf blade length might be chosen and utilized for future crop improvement programmes.

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