Center for Plant Biotechnology

Hisar Haryana, India

Center for Plant Biotechnology

Hisar Haryana, India
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Kavitha S.,Anna University | Yukesh Kannah R.,Anna University | Rajesh Banu J.,Anna University | Johnson M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2017

The present study investigates the synergistic effect of combined bacterial disintegration on mixed microalgal biomass for energy efficient biomethane generation. The rate of microalgal biomass lysis, enhanced biodegradability, and methane generation were used as indices to assess efficiency of the disintegration. A maximal dissolvable organics release and algal biomass lysis rate of about 1100, 950 and 800. mg/L and 26, 23 and 18% was achieved in PA + C (protease, amylase + cellulase secreting bacteria), C (cellulase alone) and PA (protease, amylase) microalgal disintegration. During anaerobic fermentation, a greater production of volatile fatty acids (1000. mg/L) was noted in PA + C bacterial disintegration of microalgal biomass. PA + C bacterial disintegration improve the amenability of microalgal biomass to biomethanation process with higher biodegradability of about 0.27. gCOD/g. COD, respectively. The energy balance analysis of this combined bacterial disintegration of microalgal biomass provides surplus positive net energy (1.14. GJ/d) by compensating the input energy requirements. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Asha Kanimozhi S.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Johnson M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Renisheya Joy Jeba Malar T.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: The present study was aimed to reveal the phytochemical composition of Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh and Sargassum duplicatum J. Agardh from Manapad, Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: Seaweeds Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh and Sargassum duplicatum J. Agardh were collected from Manapad, Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu, India by hand picking method. The dried and powdered materials (10 g) of S. polycystum and S. duplicatum were extracted with 60 ml of solvents viz., petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, Methanol and aqueous. The sample was kept in dark for 72 h with intermittent shaking. The different extracts were tested for steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone and sterol. Phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out according to the standard method. To know the extractive values and physicochemical characters of S. polycystum and S. duplicatum, the ash and fluorescence analysis was determined by standard method. Results: Among the various tested extracts, methanolic extracts of S. polycystum showed the presence of the maximum of seven metabolites out of ten metabolites examined. Next to that chloroform and acetone extracts of S. polycystum displayed the occurrence of four metabolites. Petroleum ether extract of S. polycystum demonstrated the presence of three metabolites. Aqueous extracts of S. polycystum showed the occurrence of only two metabolites. The methanolic and chloroform extracts of S. duplicatum showed their presence of maximum of five metabolites out of ten metabolites examined. Next to that acetone extract of S. duplicatum displayed four metabolites. Petroleum ether extract of S. duplicatum demonstrated the occurrence of three metabolites in the crude extracts. Aqueous extract of S. duplicatum displayed the presence of two metabolites. The characteristic fluorescent properties or colours emitted by the powdered thallus of S. polycystum and S. duplicatum before and after treating with various extracts were recorded. Conclusion: To strengthen the global scientific effort, in the present study the phyto-constituents presence in S. polycystum and S. duplicatum are documented. © 2015, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. All rights reserved.

Narayani M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Johnson M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Sivaraman A.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Janakiraman N.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2012

Phytochemical and antibacterial property of crude petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanolic and aqueous extracts of Jatropha curcas L leaves were studied as part of searching new bio-active compounds. The extracts of J. curcas revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups and flavonoids. Antibacterial activity of J. curcas showed varied degree of zone of inhibition against the tested bacterial pathogens. Chloroform extracts of J. curcas showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activity and the maximum zone of inhibition 10 mm were observed against E. coli and S. aureus. Petroleum ether extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa with the zone of inhibition of 10 and 4 mm respectively. Methanolic extract of J. curcas proved the antibacterial activity against three pathogens except S. aureus. Acetone extract revealed the antibacterial activity against S. aureus only.

Gnanaraj W.E.,Arignar Anna Government Arts College | Antonisamy J.M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

Aim: The present study was aimed to identify the functional groups present in the crude powder of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. stem, leaves, root and flower through FT-IR spectroscopy. Methods: FTIR method was performed on a Thermo Scientific Spectrophotometer system which was used to detect the characteristic peak values and their functional groups. Results: The results of A. lanata flower FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of amide, alcohols, phenols, alkanes, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, primary amines, aromatics, esters, ethers, alkyl halides and aliphatic amines compounds which shows major peaks at 3675.36, 3618.49, 3587.12, 2918.08, 2849.76, 1771.81, 1733.59, 1652.96, 1636.03, 1457.06, 1318.57, 1243.66, 1053.77 and 510.63 respectively. The leaves of A. lanata FTIR analysis results proved the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, alkenes, nitro compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, aliphatic amines and alkyl halides compounds. The FTIR analysis results of A. lanata root revealed the presence of amines, amides, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, carbonyls, alkenes, primary amines, nitro compounds, aromatics, alcohols, esters, ethers and alkyl halides compounds. The FTIR analysis results of A. lanata stem validated the presence of amide, alcohols, phenols, amines, alkanes, ketones, primary amines, nitro compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, alkyl halides and aliphatic amines. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed the different characteristic peak values with various functional compounds. Conclusion: The results of the present study generated the FTIR spectrum profile for the medicinally important plant A. lanata and can be used to identify the plant in the pharmaceutical industry.

Rai M.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia R.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia R.K.,University of California at Riverside | Singh R.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Biotic and abiotic stresses impose a major threat to agriculture. Therefore, the efforts to develop stress-tolerant plants are of immense importance to increase crop productivity. In recent years, tissue culture based in vitro selection has emerged as a feasible and cost-effective tool for developing stress-tolerant plants. Plants tolerant to both the biotic and the abiotic stresses can be acquired by applying the selecting agents such as NaCl (for salt tolerance), PEG or mannitol (for drought tolerance) and pathogen culture filtrate, phytotoxin or pathogen itself (for disease resistance) in the culture media. Only the explants capable of sustaining such environments survive in the long run and are selected. In vitro selection is based on the induction of genetic variation among cells, tissues and/or organs in cultured and regenerated plants. The selection of somaclonal variations appearing in the regenerated plants may be genetically stable and useful in crop improvement. This review focuses on the progress made towards the development of stress-tolerant lines through tissue culture based in vitro selection. Plants have evolved many biochemical and molecular mechanisms to survive under stress conditions. The mechanisms of ROS (reaction oxygen species) generation and removal in plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions have also been reviewed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kalia R.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia R.K.,University of California at Riverside | Rai M.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia S.,NRC on Plant Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

In recent years, molecular markers have been utilized for a variety of applications including examination of genetic relationships between individuals, mapping of useful genes, construction of linkage maps, marker assisted selections and backcrosses, population genetics and phylogenetic studies. Among the available molecular markers, microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) which are tandem repeats of one to six nucleotide long DNA motifs, have gained considerable importance in plant genetics and breeding owing to many desirable genetic attributes including hypervariability, multiallelic nature, codominant inheritance, reproducibility, relative abundance, extensive genome coverage including organellar genomes, chromosome specific location and amenability to automation and high throughput genotyping. High degree of allelic variation revealed by microsatellite markers results from variation in number of repeat-motifs at a locus caused by replication slippage and/or unequal crossing-over during meiosis. In spite of limited understanding of the functions of the SSR motifs within the plant genes, SSRs are being widely utilized in plant genome analysis. Microsatellites can be developed directly from genomic DNA libraries or from libraries enriched for specific microsatellites. Alternatively, microsatellites can also be found by searching public databases such as GenBank and EMBL or through cross-species transferability. At present, EST databases are an important source of candidate genes, as these can generate markers directly associated with a trait of interest and may be transferable in close relative genera. A large number of SSR based techniques have been developed and a quantum of literature has accumulated regarding the applicability of SSRs in plant genetics and genomics. In this review we discuss the recent developments (last 4-5 years) made in plant genetics using SSR markers. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Rai M.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Rai M.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Asthana P.,Banaras Hindu University | Jaiswal V.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Jaiswal U.,Banaras Hindu University
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2010

Guava (Psidium guajava L.), an important fruit crop of several tropical and sub-tropical countries, is facing several agronomic and horticultural problems such as susceptibility to many pathogens, particularly guava wilting caused by Fusarium oxysporium psidii, low fruit growth, short shelf life of fruits, high seed content, and stress sensitivity. Conventional breeding techniques have limited scope in improvement of guava owing to long juvenile period, self incompatibility, and heterozygous nature. Conventional propagation methods, i.e., cutting, grafting or stool layering, for improvement of guava already exist, but the long juvenile period has made them time consuming and cumbersome. Several biotechnological approaches such as genetic transformation may be effective practical solutions for such problems and improvement of guava. The improvement of fruit trees through genetic transformation requires an efficient regeneration system. During the past 2-3 decades, different approaches have been made for in vitro propagation of guava. An overview on the in vitro regeneration of guava via organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, and synthetic seeds is presented. Organogenesis in several different genotypes through various explant selection from mature tree and seedling plants has been achieved. Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis in guava have been reviewed. Production of synthetic seeds using embryogenic propagules, i.e., somatic embryos and non-embryogenic vegetative propagules, i.e., shoot tips and nodal segments have also been achieved. Development of synthetic seed in guava may be applicable for propagation, short-term storage, and germplasm exchange, and distribution. An initial attempt for genetic transformation has also been reported. The purpose of this review is to focus upon the current information on in vitro propagation and biotechnological advances made in guava. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Janakiraman N.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Johnson M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies | Year: 2016

Cancer is the cause of more than 6 million deaths worldwide every year. For centuries, medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of cancer. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and acupuncture point stimulation are also used to treat cancer. The present study was intended to reveal the cytotoxic and anticancer potential of selected Cyathea species and to highlight their importance in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of cost-effective drugs. Cytotoxic studies using brine shrimp lethality bioassays and MCF 7 cell line cultures were carried out. Compared to petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone extracts, the ethanol extracts of selected Cyathea species were found to be more effective against brine shrimps. The ethanol extracts were further subjected to 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assays. A decrease in cell viability and an increase in growth inhibition were observed for the MCF 7 cell line. The maximum percentage of cell inhibition was observed in Cyathea crinit, followed by Cyathea nilgirensis and Cyathea gigantea. The results of the present study suggest that Cyathea species are an effective source of cytotoxic compounds. © 2016.

Johnson M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Janakiraman N.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2013

The objective of the present study is to report the phytochemistry of the orchid, Dendrobium panduratum subsp. villosum Gopalan & A. N. Henry. Stem and leaves were dried and powdered using the homogenizer. Powdered materials were extracted with distilled water, benzene, ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether separately. Preliminary phytochemical screening of secondary metabolites was carried out by using Brindha et al, method. Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols and flavonoids. Physico-chemical and fluorescence analysis were carried out using various organic and inorganic solvents. The colour of the extracts was observed both under ordinary and UV light. TLC studies were carried out using Toluene: Ethyl acetate and Chloroform: Methanol as mobile phase for the presence of phenolics and steroids. These studies provide information in respect of their identification, chemical constituents and physicochemical characters which may be used for standardization of herbal drugs of the present era and enrichment of Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues.

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