Hisar Haryana, India
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Gnanaraj W.E.,Arignar Anna Government Arts College | Antonisamy J.M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

Aim: The present study was aimed to identify the functional groups present in the crude powder of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. stem, leaves, root and flower through FT-IR spectroscopy. Methods: FTIR method was performed on a Thermo Scientific Spectrophotometer system which was used to detect the characteristic peak values and their functional groups. Results: The results of A. lanata flower FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of amide, alcohols, phenols, alkanes, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, primary amines, aromatics, esters, ethers, alkyl halides and aliphatic amines compounds which shows major peaks at 3675.36, 3618.49, 3587.12, 2918.08, 2849.76, 1771.81, 1733.59, 1652.96, 1636.03, 1457.06, 1318.57, 1243.66, 1053.77 and 510.63 respectively. The leaves of A. lanata FTIR analysis results proved the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, alkenes, nitro compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, aliphatic amines and alkyl halides compounds. The FTIR analysis results of A. lanata root revealed the presence of amines, amides, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, carbonyls, alkenes, primary amines, nitro compounds, aromatics, alcohols, esters, ethers and alkyl halides compounds. The FTIR analysis results of A. lanata stem validated the presence of amide, alcohols, phenols, amines, alkanes, ketones, primary amines, nitro compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, alkyl halides and aliphatic amines. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed the different characteristic peak values with various functional compounds. Conclusion: The results of the present study generated the FTIR spectrum profile for the medicinally important plant A. lanata and can be used to identify the plant in the pharmaceutical industry.


Rai M.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia R.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia R.K.,University of California at Riverside | Singh R.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Biotic and abiotic stresses impose a major threat to agriculture. Therefore, the efforts to develop stress-tolerant plants are of immense importance to increase crop productivity. In recent years, tissue culture based in vitro selection has emerged as a feasible and cost-effective tool for developing stress-tolerant plants. Plants tolerant to both the biotic and the abiotic stresses can be acquired by applying the selecting agents such as NaCl (for salt tolerance), PEG or mannitol (for drought tolerance) and pathogen culture filtrate, phytotoxin or pathogen itself (for disease resistance) in the culture media. Only the explants capable of sustaining such environments survive in the long run and are selected. In vitro selection is based on the induction of genetic variation among cells, tissues and/or organs in cultured and regenerated plants. The selection of somaclonal variations appearing in the regenerated plants may be genetically stable and useful in crop improvement. This review focuses on the progress made towards the development of stress-tolerant lines through tissue culture based in vitro selection. Plants have evolved many biochemical and molecular mechanisms to survive under stress conditions. The mechanisms of ROS (reaction oxygen species) generation and removal in plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions have also been reviewed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kalia R.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia R.K.,University of California at Riverside | Rai M.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia S.,NRC on Plant Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

In recent years, molecular markers have been utilized for a variety of applications including examination of genetic relationships between individuals, mapping of useful genes, construction of linkage maps, marker assisted selections and backcrosses, population genetics and phylogenetic studies. Among the available molecular markers, microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) which are tandem repeats of one to six nucleotide long DNA motifs, have gained considerable importance in plant genetics and breeding owing to many desirable genetic attributes including hypervariability, multiallelic nature, codominant inheritance, reproducibility, relative abundance, extensive genome coverage including organellar genomes, chromosome specific location and amenability to automation and high throughput genotyping. High degree of allelic variation revealed by microsatellite markers results from variation in number of repeat-motifs at a locus caused by replication slippage and/or unequal crossing-over during meiosis. In spite of limited understanding of the functions of the SSR motifs within the plant genes, SSRs are being widely utilized in plant genome analysis. Microsatellites can be developed directly from genomic DNA libraries or from libraries enriched for specific microsatellites. Alternatively, microsatellites can also be found by searching public databases such as GenBank and EMBL or through cross-species transferability. At present, EST databases are an important source of candidate genes, as these can generate markers directly associated with a trait of interest and may be transferable in close relative genera. A large number of SSR based techniques have been developed and a quantum of literature has accumulated regarding the applicability of SSRs in plant genetics and genomics. In this review we discuss the recent developments (last 4-5 years) made in plant genetics using SSR markers. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Prabhadevi V.,St. Joseph's College | Sahaya S.S.,St. Joseph's College | Johnson M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Venkatramani B.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Janakiraman N.,St. Joseph's College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To explore the phytochemical constituents present in Allamanda cathartica (A. cathartica) L. using GC-MS. Methods: 20 g of the powdered leaf and stem sample of A. cathartica was equilibrated with 200 d/m of A. cathartica ethanol for 24 h, separately. The volume of the supernatant was later reduced by heating to 2 d/m. The concentrated ethanolic extracts were further subjected to GC-MS analysis. Results: The GC-MS analyses determined the presence of 28 different phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic leaf extract of A. cathartica. The major phytoconstituents were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z, Z, Z)- (16.39%), n-hexadecanoic acid (14.08%), 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (11.03%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester (Z, Z, Z)- (10.58%). The ethanolic stem extract of A. cathartica showed the presence of 26 different bioactive compounds. The major ones are 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (29.86%), 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (14.87%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.13%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z, Z, Z)- (7.34%). Conclusions: This study helps to predict the formula and structure of biomolecules which can be used as drugs and further investigation may lead to the development of drug formulation. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Singh S.R.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Singh S.R.,Kurukshetra University | Dalal S.,Kurukshetra University | Singh R.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2013

Dendrocalamus asper, an edible bamboo is valued for its tender edible shoots in the food industry. However, overexploitation of natural stands of D. asper coupled with minimal conservation and reforestation efforts has led to its rapid depletion in nature. Therefore protocol for rapid multiplication of D. asper via direct regeneration using nodal segments from mature clumps was standardized and more than 25,000 plants were transferred to the field (Singh et al. 2012a). However, genetic fidelity of these in vitro raised plants needs to be authenticated for commercial scale application of the developed micropropagation protocol. PCR-based molecular markers have emerged as simple, fast, reliable and labor-effective tools for testing the genetic fidelity of in vitro raised plants. This study report the genetic fidelity analysis of in vitro raised plants of D. asper for the first time using arbitrary (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, RAPD), semi-arbitrary (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat, ISSR; Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP), and sequence-based (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR) markers. Bulked DNA samples of 20 in vitro raised shoots (collected after every three subculture cycles starting from 3rd to 30th passage) and field transferred plantlets were compared with the mother plant DNA using 90 primer combinations (25 each of RAPD, ISSR, SSR, and 15 AFLP) and scorable bands were produced by 78 (22 RAPD, 24 ISSR, 21 SSR, and 11 AFLP) primers. A total of 146 distinct and scorable bands were produced by 22 RAPD primers with an average of 6. 6 bands per primer while the number of bands for ISSR primers varied from 3 (ISSR-4 and 9) to 13 (ISSR-17), with an average of 7. 1 bands per primer. Similarly, SSR markers also showed wide variation in number of bands, ranging from 2 (RM 261) to 12 (RM 44, 140, and 224) with an average of 7. 8 bands. AFLP primer combinations could generate 35-72 bands with an average of 48. 7 bands per primer pair. Amplification of monomorphic bands with all primer combinations authenticated the true to type nature of the in vitro raised plants of D. asper which underwent up to 30 subculture passages over a period of approximately 2 years thereby supporting the commercial utilization of the developed micropropagation protocol. © 2012 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Rai M.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Rai M.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Asthana P.,Banaras Hindu University | Jaiswal V.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Jaiswal U.,Banaras Hindu University
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2010

Guava (Psidium guajava L.), an important fruit crop of several tropical and sub-tropical countries, is facing several agronomic and horticultural problems such as susceptibility to many pathogens, particularly guava wilting caused by Fusarium oxysporium psidii, low fruit growth, short shelf life of fruits, high seed content, and stress sensitivity. Conventional breeding techniques have limited scope in improvement of guava owing to long juvenile period, self incompatibility, and heterozygous nature. Conventional propagation methods, i.e., cutting, grafting or stool layering, for improvement of guava already exist, but the long juvenile period has made them time consuming and cumbersome. Several biotechnological approaches such as genetic transformation may be effective practical solutions for such problems and improvement of guava. The improvement of fruit trees through genetic transformation requires an efficient regeneration system. During the past 2-3 decades, different approaches have been made for in vitro propagation of guava. An overview on the in vitro regeneration of guava via organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, and synthetic seeds is presented. Organogenesis in several different genotypes through various explant selection from mature tree and seedling plants has been achieved. Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis in guava have been reviewed. Production of synthetic seeds using embryogenic propagules, i.e., somatic embryos and non-embryogenic vegetative propagules, i.e., shoot tips and nodal segments have also been achieved. Development of synthetic seed in guava may be applicable for propagation, short-term storage, and germplasm exchange, and distribution. An initial attempt for genetic transformation has also been reported. The purpose of this review is to focus upon the current information on in vitro propagation and biotechnological advances made in guava. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


Rani C.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Chawla S.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Mangal M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Mangal A.K.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2012

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. is one of the most useful traditional medicinal plants in India. It is distributed widely in sub-Himalayan regions and Southwards to Godavari. Each part of the plant has some medicinal value and is thus commercially exploitable. It is now considered as a valuable source of several unique products for the medicines against various diseases and also for the development of some industrial products. The present review includes comprehensive information on the chemical constituents, biological activities of important compounds, pharmacological actions, medicinal applications and micro propagation of Night jasmine and emphasizes the need for further exploring available information.


Janakiraman N.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Johnson M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies | Year: 2016

Cancer is the cause of more than 6 million deaths worldwide every year. For centuries, medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of cancer. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and acupuncture point stimulation are also used to treat cancer. The present study was intended to reveal the cytotoxic and anticancer potential of selected Cyathea species and to highlight their importance in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of cost-effective drugs. Cytotoxic studies using brine shrimp lethality bioassays and MCF 7 cell line cultures were carried out. Compared to petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone extracts, the ethanol extracts of selected Cyathea species were found to be more effective against brine shrimps. The ethanol extracts were further subjected to 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assays. A decrease in cell viability and an increase in growth inhibition were observed for the MCF 7 cell line. The maximum percentage of cell inhibition was observed in Cyathea crinit, followed by Cyathea nilgirensis and Cyathea gigantea. The results of the present study suggest that Cyathea species are an effective source of cytotoxic compounds. © 2016.


Johnson M.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Janakiraman N.,Center for Plant Biotechnology
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2013

The objective of the present study is to report the phytochemistry of the orchid, Dendrobium panduratum subsp. villosum Gopalan & A. N. Henry. Stem and leaves were dried and powdered using the homogenizer. Powdered materials were extracted with distilled water, benzene, ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether separately. Preliminary phytochemical screening of secondary metabolites was carried out by using Brindha et al, method. Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols and flavonoids. Physico-chemical and fluorescence analysis were carried out using various organic and inorganic solvents. The colour of the extracts was observed both under ordinary and UV light. TLC studies were carried out using Toluene: Ethyl acetate and Chloroform: Methanol as mobile phase for the presence of phenolics and steroids. These studies provide information in respect of their identification, chemical constituents and physicochemical characters which may be used for standardization of herbal drugs of the present era and enrichment of Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.


Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues.

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