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Seebaluck R.,University of Mauritius | Gurib-Fakim A.,Center for Phytotherapy Research | Mahomoodally F.,University of Mauritius
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnopharmacological relevance Acalypha is the fourth largest genus of the Euphorbiaceae family with approximately 450-570 species. Several Acalypha species are used as medicinal plants in Africa and in the Mascarene Islands. Almost every part of the plant including the leaves, stem and roots are used as traditional remedies to treat and manage a panoply of ailments. However, there is no updated compilation of traditionally important medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus. The present review therefore, endeavors to provide for the first time an updated compilation of documented ethnopharmacological information in relation to the ethnomedicinal, ethnoveterinary, zoopharmacognosy, phytochemistry and biological activities of medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus which can subsequently open new perspectives for further pharmacological research.Materials and methods A literature search was performed on Acalypha species using ethnobotanical text books and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO, Google Scholar and other web sources such as records from PROTA, PROSEA, and Botanical Dermatology Database. The Plant List, International Plant Name index and Kew Botanical Garden Plant name databases were used to validate scientific names.Results and discussion Plants from Acalypha genus are traditionally used in the treatment and/or management of diverse ailments such as diabetes, jaundice, hypertension, fever, liver inflammation, schistosomiasis, dysentery, respiratory problems including bronchitis, asthma and pheumonia as well as skin conditions such as scabies, eczema and mycoses. Approximately 124 species were listed in ethnobotanical studies with some botanical description and others mentioned from different web sources. However, only 40 species have been included in the present review due to the unavailability of ethnopharmacological data on the remaining species. Among the 40 cited species, 30 were traditionally used for the treatment and/or management of approximately 70 human diseases or health conditions. Two species, Acalypha alnifolia and Acalypha fruticosa are used as insecticides and sand fly repellent respectively. Only 2 species (Acalypha fruticosa and Acalypha indica) are used in ethnoveterinary practice and have similar human and veterinary applications. In zoopharmacognosy, only Acalypha ornata has been mentioned. Natives from Africa, Central America, North America, Southern China, India, Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and Mascarenes islands utilize Acalypha species as ethnomedicine. Traditionally used Acalypha species have been reported to possess at least one of the following biological activities: antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, larvidal, pupicidal, hepatoprotective, anticancer, leishmanicidal, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, anti-venom, analgesic, anthelmintic, antiemetic, laxative, expectorant, diuretic, post-coital antifertility effects and wound healing. A total of 167 compounds have been identified from 19 species, with 16 from eight species were reported to be bioactive.Conclusion The present review represents 32.3% of species from the Acalypha genus and can be considered as the first compilation of ethnopharmacologically useful plants from this genus. There is a great potential to discover new biologically active phytochemicals from the Acalypha genus because only few species have been studied comprehensively. Therefore, the clinical evaluation of species from this genus is warranted in future studies to confirm the ethnomedicinal claims and for the safety approval of therapeutic applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Mahomoodally F.M.,University of Mauritius | Subratty A.H.,University of Mauritius | Gurib-Fakim A.,University of Mauritius | Gurib-Fakim A.,Center for Phytotherapy Research | Choudhary M.I.,University of Karachi
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Many indigenous plants of Mascarene Islands have been used in folkloric medicine to manage diabetes but few species have received scientific attention. Selected traditional medicinal plants (Antidesma madagascariense Lam. -Euphorbiaceae (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum O.E.Schulz -Erythroxylaceae (EM), Pittosporum senacia Putterl -Pittosporaceae (PS), Faujasiopsis flexuosa Lam. C.Jeffrey -Asteraceae (FF), Momordica charantia Linn -Cucurbitaceae (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L -Lamiaceae (OT) were evaluated for their antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxic potential in vitro.Methods: Graded concentrations (1.25-100 μg/mL) of the crude methanolic and water extracts and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and water) were evaluated for abilities to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase and formation of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in vitro. The MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) cytotoxicity test was performed on 3T3 cell line.Results: Only IC50 for DPPH, SO, NO and lipoxygenase for AM, FF and OT crude extracts and fractions were comparable to ascorbic acid and quercetin activity. Crude aqueous extracts of AM and FF showed IC50 of 4.08 and 3.89 μg/mL respectively for lipoxygenase which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than quercetin (10.86 ± 0.68 μg/mL). The three crude aqueous extracts of these plants and their n-butanol fractions also showed antiglycation activities (p < 0.05) comparable to aminoguanidine. Increasing concentrations (250-2000 μg/mL) of the six crude extracts (Methanol and water) and their fractions did not inhibit mitochondrial respiration as measured by MTT cytotoxicity assay.Conclusion: AM, FF and OT crude extracts and fractions have potent antioxidant and antiglycation properties with no apparent cytotoxicity and might have prophylactic and therapeutic potentials in the management of diabetes and related complications. Our study tends to validate the traditional use of these medicinal herbs and food plants as complementary and alternative medicines. © 2012 Mahomoodally et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Mahomoodally M.F.,University of Mauritius | Subratty A.H.,University of Mauritius | Gurib-Fakim A.,Center for Phytotherapy Research | Choudhary M.I.,University of Karachi | And 2 more authors.
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2012

We hypothesized that some medicinal herbs and food plants commonly used in the management of diabetes can reduce glucose peaks by inhibiting key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. To this effect, extracts of Antidesma madagascariense (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum (EM), Pittosporum senacia (PS), and Faujasiopsis flexuosa (FF), Momordica charantia (MC), and Ocimum tenuiflorum (OT) were evaluated for -amylase and -glucosidase inhibitory effects based on starch-iodine colour changes and PNP-G as substrate, respectively. Only FF and AM extracts/fractions were found to inhibit -amylase activity significantly (P<0.05) and coparable to the drug acarbose. Amylase bioassay on isolated mouse plasma confirmed the inhibitory potential of AM and FF extracts with the ethyl acetate fraction of FF being more potent (P<0.05) than acarbose. Extracts/fractions of AM and MC were found to inhibit significantly (P<0.05) -glucosidase activity, with IC50 comparable to the drug 1-deoxynojirimycin. In vivo studies on glycogen-loaded mice showed significant (P<0.05) depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose following ingestion of AM and MC extracts. Our findings tend to provide a possible explanation for the hypoglycemic action of MC fruits and AM leaf extracts as alternative nutritional therapy in the management of diabetes. © 2012 M. Fawzi Mahomoodally et al. Source


Mahomoodally F.,University of Mauritius | Mesaik A.,University of Karachi | Choudhary M.I.,University of Karachi | Choudhary M.I.,King Abdulaziz University | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate . in vitro immunomodulating properties and potential cytotoxicity of six tropical medicinal herbs and food plants namely . Antidesma madagascariense (Euphorbiaceae) (AM), . Erythroxylum macrocarpum (Erythroxylaceae) (EM), . Faujasiopsis flexuosa (Asteraceae) (FF), . Pittosporum senacia (Pittosporaceae) (PS), . Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) and . Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) (OT). Methods: Initially, the crude water and methanol extracts were probed for their capacity to trigger immune cells' NADPH oxidase and MPO-dependent activities as measured by lucigenin- and luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, respectively; as compared to receptor-dependent (serum opsonised zymosan- OPZ) or receptor-independent phorbol myristerate acetate (PMA). Results: Preliminary screening on whole human blood oxidative burst activity showed significant and concentration-dependent immunomodulating properties of three plants AM, FF and OT. Further investigations of the fractions on isolated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mice monocytes using two different pathways for activation of phagocytic oxidative burst showed that ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent extract. None of the active samples had cell-death effects on human PMNs, under the assay conditions as determined by the trypan-blue exclusion assay. Since PMA and OPZ NADPH oxidase complex is activated . via different transduction pathways, these results suggest that AM, FF and OT does not affect a specific transductional pathway, but rather directly inhibit a final common biochemical target such as the NADPH oxidase enzyme and/or scavenges ROS. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that some of these plants extracts/fractions were able to modulate significantly immune response of phagocytes and monocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new natural alternative immunomodulatory agents. © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Source


Rangasamy O.,University of Mauritius | Rangasamy O.,Center for Phytotherapy Research | Mahomoodally F.M.,University of Mauritius | Gurib-Fakim A.,Center for Phytotherapy Research | Quetin-Leclercq J.,Catholic University of Louvain
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Psiloxylon mauritianum (Bouton ex Hook.f.) Baillon (PM) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment and management of dysentery and common infectious diseases in Mauritius. Locally, the plant is orally administered in the form of a broth made with the young leaves for its curative properties. Though the traditional use of this plant had been documented in early ethnomedicinal surveys, it had however never been studied. This study thus endeavors at validating the traditional use of PM and purifying the active bioactive secondary metabolites responsible for any observed biological activity. The crude extract was assessed in vitro for growth inhibiting activity against several microbial strains using both the broth microdilution assay and bioautography. Additionally, the antioxidant activity was assessed using standard assays and the most active extract was submitted to bio-guided fractionation for further evaluation. PM was found to be both strongly antibacterial and antioxidant. The crude acetone extract as well as its subsequent preliminary tannin-less fractions was found to be markedly anti-staphylococcal. Lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 51. μg/ml and 19. μg/ml were recorded for the crude extract and the most polar preliminary tannin-less (20% methanol in dichloromethane) fraction of PM, respectively. On the other hand, the plant was found to be only weakly antifungal, inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans at 3.25. mg/ml. Consequently, PM extract was further fractionated and the fractions were tested on Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of (2α, 3β)-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid and (2α, 3β) 23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, commonly known as, corosolic and asiatic acid respectively for the first time from this endemic species of Mauritius. The present study thus clearly indicates that PM possessed substantial antimicrobial, in particular anti-staphylococcal activity which corroborates with its use in the traditional Mauritian pharmacopoeia as a plant having potential anti-infective properties. The results so far obtained further substantiate, not only, the importance of screening medicinal plants as reliable sources of lead molecules, but also provide additional credence to the traditional uses of such plant. © 2014 South African Association of Botanists. Source

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