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Turner S.T.,Mayo Medical School | Boerwinkle E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | O'Connell J.R.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Bailey K.R.,Mayo Medical School | And 27 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2013

To identify novel genes influencing blood pressure response to thiazide diuretic therapy for hypertension, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of ≈1.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a combined sample of 424 European Americans with primary hypertension treated with hydrochlorothiazide from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses study (n=228) and the Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensive study (n=196). Polymorphisms associated with blood pressure response at P<10-5 were tested for replication of the associations in independent samples of hydrochlorothiazide-treated European hypertensives. The rs16960228 polymorphism in protein kinase C, α replicated for same-direction association with diastolic blood pressure response in the Nordic Diltiazem study (n=420) and the Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension study (n=206), and the combined 4-study meta-analysis P value achieved genome-wide significance (P=3.3×10-8). Systolic or diastolic blood pressure responses were consistently greater in carriers of the rs16960228 A allele than in GG homozygotes (>4/4 mm Hg) across study samples. The rs2273359 polymorphism in the GNAS-EDN3 region also replicated for same-direction association with systolic blood pressure response in the Nordic Diltiazem study, and the combined 3-study meta-analysis P value approached genome-wide significance (P=5.5×10-8). The findings document clinically important effects of genetic variation at novel loci on blood pressure response to a thiazide diuretic, which may be a basis for individualization of antihypertensive drug therapy and identification of new drug targets. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


VanderKraats N.D.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Hiken J.F.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Edwards J.R.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Zhang H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhao K.,Laboratory of Molecular Immunology
Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society | Year: 2013

Marek's disease (MD) is characterized as a T cell lymphoma induced by a cell-associated α-herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV1). As with many viral infectious diseases, DNA methylation variations were observed in the progression of MD; these variations are thought to play an important role in host-virus interactions. We observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and 3b (DNMT3b) were differentially expressed in chicken MD-resistant line 6 3 and MD-susceptible line 7 2 at 21 d after MDV infection. To better understand the role of methylation variation induced by MDV infection in both chicken lines, we mapped the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in each line using Methyl-MAPS (methylation mapping analysis by paired-end sequencing). Collectively, the data sets collected in this study provide a more comprehensive picture of the chicken methylome. Overall, methylation levels were reduced in chickens from the resistant line 6 3 after MDV infection. We identified 11,512 infection-induced differential methylation regions (iDMRs). The number of iDMRs was larger in line 7 2 than in line 6 3, and most of iDMRs found in line 6 3 were overlapped with the iDMRs found in line 7 2. We further showed that in vitro methylation levels were associated with MDV replication, and found that MDV propagation in the infected cells was restricted by pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation. Our results suggest that DNA methylation in the host may be associated with disease resistance or susceptibility. The methylation variations induced by viral infection may consequentially change the host transcriptome and result in diverse disease outcomes.


Weitzel K.W.,Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research | Langaee T.Y.,Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research | Langaee T.Y.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Burkley B.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2014

Current challenges exist to widespread clinical implementation of genomic medicine and pharmacogenetics. The University of Florida (UF) Health Personalized Medicine Program (PMP) is a pharmacist-led, multidisciplinary initiative created in 2011 within the UF Clinical Translational Science Institute. Initial efforts focused on pharmacogenetics, with long-term goals to include expansion to disease-risk prediction and disease stratification. Herein we describe the processes for development of the program, the challenges that were encountered and the clinical acceptance by clinicians of the genomic medicine implementation. The initial clinical implementation of the UF PMP began in June 2012 and targeted clopidogrel use and the CYP2C19 genotype in patients undergoing left heart catheterization and percutaneous-coronary intervention (PCI). After 1 year, 1,097 patients undergoing left heart catheterization were genotyped preemptively, and 291 of those underwent subsequent PCI. Genotype results were reported to the medical record for 100% of genotyped patients. Eighty patients who underwent PCI had an actionable genotype, with drug therapy changes implemented in 56 individuals. Average turnaround time from blood draw to genotype result entry in the medical record was 3.5 business days. Seven different third party payors, including Medicare, reimbursed for the test during the first month of billing, with an 85% reimbursement rate for outpatient claims that were submitted in the first month. These data highlight multiple levels of success in clinical implementation of genomic medicine. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Chen Y.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Csordas G.,Thomas Jefferson University | Jowdy C.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Schneider T.G.,Thomas Jefferson University | And 10 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2012

RATIONALE: Mitochondrial Ca uptake is essential for the bioenergetic feedback response through stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases. Close association of mitochondria to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) may explain efficient mitochondrial Ca uptake despite low Ca affinity of the mitochondrial Ca uniporter. However, the existence of such mitochondrial Ca microdomains and their functional role are presently unresolved. Mitofusin (Mfn) 1 and 2 mediate mitochondrial outer membrane fusion, whereas Mfn2 but not Mfn1 tethers endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria in noncardiac cells. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate roles for Mfn1 and 2 in SR-mitochondrial tethering, Ca signaling, and bioenergetic regulation in cardiac myocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fruit fly heart tubes deficient of the Drosophila Mfn ortholog MARF had increased contraction-associated and caffeine-sensitive Ca release, suggesting a role for Mfn in SR Ca handling. Whereas cardiac-specific Mfn1 ablation had no effects on murine heart function or Ca cycling, Mfn2 deficiency decreased cardiomyocyte SR-mitochondrial contact length by 30% and reduced the content of SR-associated proteins in mitochondria-associated membranes. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial Ca uptake (despite unchanged mitochondrial membrane potential) but increased steady-state and caffeine-induced SR Ca release. Accordingly, Ca-induced stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases during β-adrenergic stimulation was hampered in Mfn2-KO but not Mfn1-KO myocytes, evidenced by oxidation of the redox states of NAD(P)H/NAD(P) and FADH2/FAD. CONCLUSIONS: Physical tethering of SR and mitochondria via Mfn2 is essential for normal interorganelle Ca signaling in the myocardium, consistent with a requirement for SR-mitochondrial Ca signaling through microdomains in the cardiomyocyte bioenergetic feedback response to physiological stress. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.


Shafiu M.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Shafiu M.,University of Florida | Johnson R.J.,University of Florida | Johnson R.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 8 more authors.
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research | Year: 2012

Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. URAT1 is a urate transporter, and we tested the association of URAT1 transporter gene (SLC22A12) polymorphisms with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in hypertensive subjects. Methods: Patients with essential hypertension (n = 414) from a randomized controlled study were genotyped for SLC22A12 SNPs rs11602903, rs505802 and rs11231825. Results: In Caucasians, SLC22A12 SNPs were associated with the body mass index (BMI). rs11602903 was associated with BMI (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p = 0.003), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.018) and the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.033), and accounted for 7% of the variation of BMI in Caucasians. In African Americans, SLC22A12 SNP rs11602903 was not associated with BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Conclusion: The URAT1 gene SLC22A12 polymorphism may play a role in obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Matkovich S.J.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Wang W.,University of Washington | Tu Y.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | Eschenbacher W.H.,Center for Pharmacogenomics | And 5 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2010

RATIONALE: MicroRNA (miR)-133a regulates cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation and plays an important role in cardiac development. Because miR-133a levels decrease during reactive cardiac hypertrophy, some have considered that restoring miR-133a levels could suppress hypertrophic remodeling. OBJECTIVE: To prevent the "normal" downregulation of miR-133a induced by an acute hypertrophic stimulus in the adult heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: miR-133a is downregulated in transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy, but not in 2 genetic hypertrophy models. Using MYH6 promoter-directed expression of a miR-133a genomic precursor, increased cardiomyocyte miR-133a had no effect on postnatal cardiac development assessed by measures of structure, function, and mRNA profile. However, increased miR-133a levels increased QT intervals in surface electrocardiographic recordings and action potential durations in isolated ventricular myocytes, with a decrease in the fast component of the transient outward K + current, I to,f, at baseline. Transgenic expression of miR-133a prevented TAC-associated miR-133a downregulation and improved myocardial fibrosis and diastolic function without affecting the extent of hypertrophy. I to,f downregulation normally observed post-TAC was prevented in miR-133a transgenic mice, although action potential duration and QT intervals did not reflect this benefit. miR-133a transgenic hearts had no significant alterations of basal or post-TAC mRNA expression profiles, although decreased mRNA and protein levels were observed for the I to,f auxiliary KChIP2 subunit, which is not a predicted target. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal striking differences between in vitro and in vivo phenotypes of miR expression, and further suggest that mRNA signatures do not reliably predict either direct miR targets or major miR effects.


Matkovich S.J.,Washington University in St. Louis | Hu Y.,Washington University in St. Louis | Dorn G.W.,Washington University in St. Louis | Dorn G.W.,Center for Pharmacogenomics
Circulation Research | Year: 2013

Rationale: MicroRNAs modestly suppress their direct mRNA targets, and these direct effects are amplified by modulation of gene transcription pathways. Consequently, indirect mRNA modulatory effects of microRNAs to increase or decrease mRNAs greatly outnumber direct target suppressions. Because microRNAs are products of transcription, the potential exists for microRNAs that regulate transcription to regulate other microRNAs. Objective: Determine whether cardiac-expressed microRNAs regulate expression of other cardiac microRNAs, and measure the impact of microRNA-mediated microRNA regulation on indirect regulation of nontarget mRNAs. Methods and Results: Transgenic expression of pre-microRNAs was used to generate mouse hearts expressing 6-to 16-fold normal levels of microRNA (miR)-143, miR-378, and miR-499. Genome-wide mRNA and microRNA signatures were established using deep sequencing; expression profiles provoked by each microRNA were defined. miR-143 suppressed its direct cardiac mRNA target hexokinase 2, but exhibited little indirect target regulation and did not regulate other cardiac microRNAs. Both miR-378 and miR-499 indirectly regulated hundreds of cardiac mRNAs and 15 to 30 cardiac microRNAs. MicroRNA overexpression did not alter normal processing of either transgenic or endogenous cardiac microRNAs, and microRNA-mediated regulation of other microRNAs encoded within parent genes occurred in tandem with parent mRNAs. MicroRNA regulation by miR-378 and miR-499 was stimulus specific, and contributed to observed mRNA downregulation. Conclusions: MicroRNAs that modulate cardiac transcription can indirectly regulate other microRNAs. Transcriptional modulation by microRNAs, and microRNA-mediated microRNA regulation, help explain how small direct effects of microRNAs are amplified to generate striking phenotypes. (Circ Res. 2013;113:62-71.).


PubMed | Center for Pharmacogenomics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Circulation research | Year: 2012

MyomiRs miR-499, miR-208a and miR-208b direct cardiac myosin gene expression. Sequence complementarity between miRs and their mRNA targets determines miR effects, but the functional consequences of human myomiR sequence variants are unknown.To identify and investigate mutations in human myomiRs in order to better understand how and to what extent naturally-occurring sequence variation can impact miR-mRNA targeting and end-organ function.Screening of 2,600 individual DNAs for myomiR sequence variants identified a rare mutation of miR-499, u17c in the 3 end, well outside the seed region thought to determine target recognition. In vitro luciferase reporter analysis showed that the 3 miR-499 mutation altered suppression of a subset of artificial and natural mRNA targets. Cardiac-specific transgenic expression was used to compare consequences of wild-type and mutant miR-499. Both wild-type and mutant miR-499 induced heart failure in mice, but miR-499 c17 misdirected recruitment of a subset of miR-499 target mRNAs to cardiomyocyte RNA-induced silencing complexes, altering steady-state cardiac mRNA and protein make-up and favorably impacting cardiac function. In vitro analysis of miR-499 target site mutations and modeling of binding energies revealed abnormal miR-mRNA duplex configurations induced by the c17 mutation.A naturally occurring miR-499 mutation outside the critical seed sequence modifies mRNA targeting and end-organ function. This first description of in vivo effects from a natural human miR mutation outside the seed sequence supports comprehensive studies of individual phenotypes or disease-modification conferred by miR mutations.


PubMed | Center for Pharmacogenomics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Circulation research | Year: 2012

MicroRNA-499 and other members of the myomiR family regulate myosin isoforms in pressure-overload hypertrophy. miR-499 expression varies in human disease, but results of mouse cardiac miR-499 overexpression are inconsistent, either protecting against ischemic damage or aggravating cardiomyopathy after pressure overload. Likewise, there is disagreement over direct and indirect cardiac mRNAs targeted in vivo by miR-499.To define the associations between regulated miR-499 level in clinical and experimental heart disease and modulation of its predicted mRNA targets and to determine the consequences of increased cardiac miR-499 on direct mRNA targeting, indirect mRNA modulation, and on myocardial protein content and posttranslational modification.miR-499 levels were increased in failing and hypertrophied human hearts and associated with decreased levels of predicted target mRNAs. Likewise, miR-499 is increased in Gq-mediated murine cardiomyopathy. Forced cardiomyocyte expression of miR-499 at levels comparable to human cardiomyopathy induced progressive murine heart failure and exacerbated cardiac remodeling after pressure overloading. Genome-wide RNA-induced silencing complex and RNA sequencing identified 67 direct, and numerous indirect, cardiac mRNA targets, including Akt and MAPKs. Myocardial proteomics identified alterations in protein phosphorylation linked to the miR-499 cardiomyopathy phenotype, including of heat shock protein 90 and protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1-.miR-499 is increased in human and murine cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy, is sufficient to cause murine heart failure, and accelerates maladaptation to pressure overloading. The deleterious effects of miR-499 reflect the cumulative consequences of direct and indirect mRNA regulation, modulation of cardiac kinase and phosphatase pathways, and higher-order effects on posttranslational modification of myocardial proteins.

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