Yasmi Y.,Center for People and Forests |
Schanz H.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management | Year: 2010
Two extremes of forest conflict exist: low- and high-intensity conflicts. Theoretical debate on how forest conflict escalates from one extreme to the other has begun to take place; however, empirical research is lacking. Our paper aims to explore the conflict escalation process using a case study approach. We explored whether two theoretical building blocks of conflict escalation (stages and patterns) can be evaluated at the field level. We conducted fieldwork in Baru Pelepat village, Sumatra, to investigate a conflict between a logging company and a local community. We performed interviews and focus group discussions with key stakeholders. The conflict revolved around an unclear boundary between a state forest, within which the logging company operated, and the communal forest, which led to local community opposition to logging activity. The conflict escalated over time as parties failed to find a solution. We describe escalation stages associated with the conflict and also the pattern of conflict escalation. The findings suggest that theoretical frameworks of conflict escalation are applicable at field level. A number of practical options for managing the conflict and the implications for wider forest management are discussed. While understanding the conflict escalation process does not necessarily guarantee effective settlement of a conflict, it nonetheless helps to strategically devise conflict management efforts. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Ghimire C.P.,University of Twente |
Ghimire C.P.,VU University Amsterdam |
Bruijnzeel L.A.,VU University Amsterdam |
Bonell M.,University of Dundee |
And 3 more authors.
Ecohydrology | Year: 2014
This work investigated the multi-decadal changes in field saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kfs, beneath severely degraded pasture, natural forest and two mature planted Pinus roxburghii stands between two sets of measurements made in 1986 and 2011 at the same locations in the Middle Mountains of Central Nepal. Multiple measurements of Kfs were made at the four sites, both at the surface and at depths of 0·05-0·15, 0·15-0·25 and 0·25-0·50m. The Kfs results were subsequently combined with rainfall intensities associated with different time intervals to infer multi-decadal changes in dominant hillslope stormflow pathways. The widely assumed hydrological benefits of reforesting degraded land through the enhancement of near-surface permeability due to such factors as the incorporation of a greater amount of organic matter, formation of macropores, as well as root development were not observed in this study. Continued heavy use of the natural and planted forests of the Middle Mountains, particularly the removal of understory vegetation and leaf litter, and cattle grazing, are considered to be the chief causal factors of the presently observed deterioration in forest hydrological functioning. This situation is typical not only of the Middle Mountain Zone across the Himalaya but is also observed in other densely populated parts of South and South-East Asia. The key conclusion of this work is that simply planting trees in degraded landscapes is not sufficient in itself to restore watershed hydrological functioning. Attention also needs to be given to on-going management of the reforested areas to balance product usage with watershed functions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thaworn R.,Community Forestry Development |
Kelley L.,Association for Resource Conflict Management |
Yasmi Y.,Center for People and Forests
Unasylva | Year: 2010
The article challenges the traditional paradigm of conservation in Thailand, which is one of strict exclusion, based on the necessity of distancing humans from nature to ensure its protection. Conservation policy in Thailand developed in the 1960s in response to wide-spread deforestation. Using the National Park Act as the guiding tool, the Thai State has shifted its focus away from logging and towards forest conservation. Teen Tok Village is situated in Kanchanaburi Province in Thailand, roughly 140 km from the provincial capital. The larger community comprises a cluster of six villages, of which Teen Tok is one, located along the Ploo River near the Sri Nakarin Dam. Two protected areas were declared in the area by the government in 1981. A second and important cause of conflict was the absence of community consultation prior to the establishment of the two protected areas.
Arevalo J.,University of Eastern Finland |
Ochieng R.,Wageningen University |
Mola-Yudego B.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute |
Gritten D.,Center for People and Forests
Land Use Policy | Year: 2014
In recent years, conflicts related to tenure, management and utilization of natural resources, in particular bioenergy conflicts, are becoming increasingly common. Many bioenergy conflicts are related to plantation projects seeking to capitalize on the opportunity to profit from a combination of factors, centred on the enabling environment for biofuel plantation establishment found in many developing countries. This study analyses these and other related issues in a conflict in the Tana Delta in Kenya. The conflict is centred on a proposed 65,000. ha Jatropha curcas plantation for biodiesel by the Canadian company Bedford. Ethical Analysis, a conflict management and research tool, was employed to better understand the underlying conflict causes. Shortcomings in the technical feasibility studies and participatory planning processes were revealed, including a poor understanding of the different interests and values with regard to land tenure and traditional rights. While the adoption of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) is proposed, also capacities and the regulatory framework need to be strengthened to improve transparency, coordination, impact assessment and investment security. The study proposes ways to manage the ongoing conflict and discusses its implications for bioenergy governance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.