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Shinoda M.,Center for Pain Research | Shinoda M.,Nihon University | La J.-H.,Center for Pain Research | Bielefeldt K.,University of Pittsburgh | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2010

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by pain and hypersensitivity in the relative absence of colon inflammation or structural changes. To assess the role of P2X receptors expressed in colorectal dorsal root ganglion (c-DRG) neurons and colon hypersensitivity, we studied excitability and purinergic signaling of retrogradely labeled mouse thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) c-DRG neurons after intracolonic treatment with saline or zymosan (which reproduces 2 major features of IBS- persistent colorectal hypersensitivity without inflammation) using patch-clamp, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR techniques. Although whole cell capacitances did not differ between LS and TL c-DRG neurons and were not changed after zymosan treatment, membrane excitability was increased in LS and TL c-DRG neurons from zymosan-treated mice. Purinergic agonist adenosine-5=-triphosphate (ATP) and α,β-methylene ATP [α,β-meATP] produced inward currents in TL c-DRG neurons were predominantly P2X3-like fast (̃70% of responsive neurons); P2X 2/3-like slow currents were more common in LS c-DRG neurons (̃35% of responsive neurons). Transient currents were not produced by either agonist in c-DRG neurons from P2X 3 -/- mice. Neither total whole cell Kv current density nor the sustained or transient Kv components was changed in c-DRG neurons after zymosan treatment. The number of cells expressing P2X3 protein and its mRNA and the kinetic properties of ATP- and α,β-meATPevoked currents in c-DRG neurons were not changed by zymosan treatment. However, the EC 50 of α,β-meATP for the fast current decreased significantly in TL c-DRG neurons. These findings suggest that colorectal hypersensitivity produced by intracolonic zymosan increases excitability and enhances purinergic signaling in c-DRG neurons. Copyright © 2010 The American Physiological Society.


Tanaka T.,Center for Pain Research | Tanaka T.,Takeda Pharmaceutical | Shinoda M.,Center for Pain Research | Feng B.,Center for Pain Research | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2011

Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by colorectal hypersensitivity and contributed to by sensitized mechanosensitive primary afferents and recruitment of mechanoinsensitive (silent) afferents. Neurotrophic factors are well known to orchestrate dynamic changes in the properties of sensory neurons. Although pain modulation by proteins in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family has been documented in various pathophysiological states, their role in colorectal hypersensitivity remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of the GDNF family receptor α-3 (GFRα3) signaling in visceral hypersensitivity by quantifying visceromotor responses (VMR) to colorectal distension before and after intracolonic treatment with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Baseline responses to colorectal distension did not differ between C57BL/6 and GFRα3 knockout (KO) mice. Relative to intracolonic saline treatment, TNBS significantly enhanced the VMR to colorectal distension in C57BL/6 mice 2, 7, 10, and 14 days posttreatment, whereas TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was significantly suppressed in GFRα3 KO mice. The proportion of GFRα3 immunopositive thoracolumbar and lumbosacral colorectal dorsal root ganglion neurons was significantly elevated 2 days after TNBS treatment. In single fiber recordings, responses to circumferential stretch of colorectal afferent endings in C57BL/6 mice were significantly increased (sensitized) after exposure to an inflammatory soup, whereas responses to stretch did not sensitize in GFRα3 KO mice. These findings suggest that enhanced GFRα3 signaling in visceral afferents may contribute to development of colorectal hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society.


Williams B.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Williams B.A.,Center for Pain Research | Hough K.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Hough K.A.,Center for Pain Research | And 7 more authors.
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine | Year: 2011

Background and Objectives: Clonidine, buprenorphine, dexamethasone, and midazolam (C, B, D, M) have been used to prolong perineural local anesthesia in the absence of data on the influence of these adjuvants on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, the impact of these adjuvants on ropivacaine (R)-induced death of isolated sensory neurons was assessed. Methods: The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to assess death of sensory neurons isolated from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Drugs were applied, alone or in combination, for 2 or 24 hrs at 37°C. Results: Neuronal viability was halved by 24-hr exposure to R (2.5 mg/mL), far exceeding the neurotoxicity of C, B, D, or M (at 2-100 times estimated clinical concentrations). Plain M at twice the estimated clinical concentration produced a small but significant increase in neurotoxicity at 24 hrs. After 2-hr exposure, high concentrations of B, C, and M increased the neurotoxicity of R; the combination of R + M killed more than 90% of neurons. Estimated clinical concentrations of C + B (plus 66 μg/mL D) had no influence on (i) R-induced neurotoxicity, (ii) the increased neurotoxicity associated with the combination of R + M, or (iii) the neurotoxicity associated with estimated clinical concentrations of M. There was increased neurotoxicity with 133 μg/mL D combined with R + C + B. Conclusions: Results with R reaffirm the need to identify ways to mitigate local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. While having no protective effect on R-induced neurotoxicity in vitro, future research with adjuvants should address if the C + B + D combination can enable reducing R concentrations needed to achieve equianalgesia (and/or provide equal or superior duration, in preclinical in vivo models). Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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