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Soccorso G.,Paediatric Surgery Unit | Grossman O.,Paediatric Surgery Unit | Martinelli M.,University of Naples Federico II | Marven S.S.,Paediatric Surgery Unit | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2012

Swallowed button batteries (BB) which remain lodged in the oesophagus are at risk of serious complications, particularly in young children. The authors report a 3-year-old child, who rapidly developed an oesophageal perforation, following the ingestion of a 20-mm lithium BB which was initially mistaken for a coin. A thoracotomy and T-tube management of the perforation led to a positive outcome. BBs (20 mm) in children should be removed quickly and close observation is required as the damage initiated by the battery can lead to a significant injury within a few hours. Source


Thomson M.,University College London | Thomson M.,Center for Paediatric Gastroenterology | Rao P.,University College London | Rawat D.,University College London | Wenzl T.G.,Universitatsklinikum Aachen
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

AIM: To investigate the effects of percutaneous endo-scopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding on gastro-oesoph-ageal reflux (GOR) in a group of these children using combined intraluminal pH and multiple intraluminal impedance (pH/MII). METHODS: Ten neurologically impaired children underwent 12 h combined pH/MII procedures at least 1 d before and at least 12 d after PEG placement. METHODS: Prior to PEG placement (pre-PEG) a total of 183 GOR episodes were detected, 156 (85.2%) were non-acidic. After PEG placement (post-PEG) a total of 355 episodes were detected, 182 (51.3%) were non-acidic. The total number of distal acid refux events statistically significantly increased post-PEG placement (pre-PEG total 27, post-PEG total 173, P = 0.028) and the mean distal pH decreased by 1.1 units. The distal reflux index therefore also significantly increased post-PEG [pre-PEG 0.25 (0-2), post-PEG 2.95 (0-40)]. Average proximal pH was lower post-PEG but the within subject difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.058).Median number of non-acid GOR, average reflux height, total acid clearance time and total bolus clearance time were all lower pre-PEG, but not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: PEG placement increases GOR episodes in neurologically impaired children. © 2011 Baishideng. All rights reserved. Source


Tran S.-L.,University of East Anglia | Tran S.-L.,UK Institute of Food Research | Billoud L.,Aix - Marseille University | Lewis S.B.,University of East Anglia | And 4 more authors.
Cellular Microbiology | Year: 2014

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) is dependent on release of Shiga toxins (Stxs) during intestinal infection and subsequent absorption into the bloodstream. An understanding of Stx-related events in the human gut is limited due to lack of suitable experimental models. In this study, we have used a vertical diffusion chamber system with polarized human colon carcinoma cells to simulate the microaerobic (MA) environment in the human intestine and investigate its influence on Stx release and translocation during STEC O157:H7 and O104:H4 infection. Stx2 was the major toxin type released during infection. Whereas microaerobiosis significantly reduced bacterial growth as well as Stx production and release into the medium, Stx translocation across the epithelial monolayer was enhanced under MA versus aerobic conditions. Increased Stx transport was dependent on STEC infection and occurred via a transcellular pathway other than macropinocytosis. While MA conditions had a similar general effect on Stx release and absorption during infection with STEC O157:H7 and O104:H4, both serotypes showed considerable differences in colonization, Stx production, and Stx translocation which suggest alternative virulence strategies. Taken together, our study suggests that the MA environment in the human colon may modulate Stx-related events and enhance Stx absorption during STEC infection. © 2014 The Authors. Cellular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Edwards L.A.,Center for Paediatric Gastroenterology | Edwards L.A.,Institute of Child Health | Bajaj-Elliott M.,Institute of Child Health | Klein N.J.,Institute of Child Health | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and Enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli have similar, but distinct clinical symptoms and modes of pathogenesis. Nevertheless when they infect the gastrointestinal tract, it is thought that their flagellin causes IL-8 release leading to neutrophil recruitment and gastroenteritis. However, this may not be the whole story as the effect of bacterial adherence to IEC innate response(s) remains unclear. Therefore, we have characterized which bacterial motifs contribute to the innate epithelial response to EPEC and EAEC, using a range of EPEC and EAEC isogenic mutant strains. Methodology: Caco-2 and HEp-2 cell lines were exposed to prototypical EPEC strain E2348/69 or EAEC strain O42, in addition to a range of isogenic mutant strains. E69 [LPS, non-motile, non-adherent, type three secretion system (TTSS) negative, signalling negative] or O42 [non-motile, non-adherent]. IL-8 and CCL20 protein secretion was measured. Bacterial surface structures were assessed by negative staining Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Fluorescent-actin staining test was carried out to determine bacterial adherence. Results: Previous studies have reported a balance between the host pro-inflammatory response and microbial suppression of this response. In our system an overall balance towards the host pro-inflammatory response is seen with the E69 WT and to a greater extent O42 WT, which is in fit with clinical symptoms. On removal of the external EPEC structures flagella, LPS, BFP, EspA and EspC; and EAEC flagella and AAF, the host inflammatory response is reduced. However, removal of E69 lymphostatin increases the host inflammatory response suggesting involvement in the bacterial mediated anti-inflammatory response. Conclusion: Epithelial responses were due to combinations of bacterial agonists, with host-bacterial contact a key determinant of these innate responses. Host epithelial recognition was offset by the microbe's ability to down-regulate the inflammatory response. Understanding the complexity of this host-microbial balance will contribute to improved vaccine design for infectious gastroenteritis. © 2011 Edwards et al. Source


Soccorso G.,Paediatric Surgical Unit | Sarkhy A.,Center for Paediatric Gastroenterology | Lindley R.M.,Paediatric Surgical Unit | Marven S.S.,Paediatric Surgical Unit | Thomson M.,Center for Paediatric Gastroenterology
Journal of Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2012

In adults, small bowel diaphragm disease is a rare complication of small bowel enteropathy secondary to the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The main clinical manifestations are gastrointestinal bleeding and subacute obstruction, and management can be challenging. We present a case of a 5-year-old girl with small bowel diaphragm disease. To our knowledge, this is the first idiopathic case (no history of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use) in the pediatric age group. This report describes an integrated successful definitive therapeutic method of double-balloon enteroscopy and minimal invasive bowel surgery for small bowel pathology. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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