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AlHathal Al-Anezi A.,Center for Osmosis Research and Applications | AlHathal Al-Anezi A.,College of Technological Studies | Sharif A.O.,Center for Osmosis Research and Applications | Sanduk M.I.,Center for Osmosis Research and Applications | Khan A.R.,Kuwait University
International Journal of Water | Year: 2013

Membrane distillation (MD) is a recent and unique separation technology, in use in the process industry. The process of separation in MD involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semi permeable membrane, using thermal energy. Consequently a separation of the feed solution into two components - the permeate or product and the retentate or the return stream occurs. MD utilises low grade or alternative energy, e.g., solar energy, geothermal energy, etc., as a source and is the most cost effective separation technology. Hence the process has come to acquire the attention and interest of researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians all over the world. This article is a comprehensive review of the prominent research in the field of MD technology, including its basic principle, MD configurations, area of applications, membrane characteristics and modules, experimental studies involving the effect of main operating parameters, MD energy and economic, fouling and long-term performance. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Merdaw A.A.,Center for Osmosis Research and Applications | Sharif A.O.,Center for Osmosis Research and Applications | Derwish G.A.W.,Center for Osmosis Research and Applications
Desalination | Year: 2010

This study is a combination of experimental and theoretical works in an attempt to produce a new useful empirical model for the mass transfer in pressure-driven membrane separation processes. Following on from our previous work in Part I, this part II paper introduces three new permeability models when using aqueous solutions as feed. The Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow Concentration-Polarization (SDPFCP) model, which is a combination between the Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow (SDPF) model [1] and the Concentration Polarization (CP) model, is presented. The SDPFCP model examines the CP model to represent the transfer phenomena outside the membrane by merging its effect within the water permeability coefficient. A further development for this model, the SDPFCP+, is obtained by adding an additional resistance to the system in series with the membrane resistance and the CP. The second model shows fair representation of the experimental results. The Solution-Diffusion Pore-Flow Fluid-Resistance (SDPFFR) model is then proposed to provide better representation for the system. The feed solution resistance to water flux, the Fluid Resistance (FR), is suggested to replace the CP and the additional resistance. The latter model shows excellent fitting to the experimental results; it may be useful for development and design applications, when based on experimental data. Crown Copyright © 2010. Source

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