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Lin M.-T.,Boston University | Burgess Jr. J.F.,Boston University | Burgess Jr. J.F.,Center for Organization | Carey K.,Boston University | Carey K.,Center for Health Quality
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

Purpose: Psychological problems could lead to several adverse health outcomes and were strongly correlated with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, patients treated in EDs were vulnerable to psychological problems. We therefore examined the population-level association between serious psychological distress (SPD) and emergency department (ED) use among young adults in the USA. We also studied the additive effects of SPD, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the ED presentation. Methods: The study sample contains 16,873 individuals, using data from the National Health Interview Survey, from 2004 to 2006. Bivariate analyses with chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses are performed. Results: Young adults having SPD were 2.05 times more likely to go to an ED. People having SPD and being a current smoker were 2.52 times more likely to use services in an ED. However, people having SPD and being a heavy drinker did not have a significantly elevated risk of ED use. Conclusion An association between SPD and ED use among US young adults is established in this study. Attempts to decrease excess ED use and the development of strategies to improve mental health among young adults are needed to improve patient health and reduce the healthcare burden of high costs and deteriorating ED care quality. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Carey K.,Boston University | Stefos T.,Boston University | Shibei Zhao,Boston University | Borzecki A.M.,Boston University | And 2 more authors.
Medical Care Research and Review

This article estimates excess costs associated with postoperative complications among inpatients treated in Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals. The authors conducted an observational study on 43,822 hospitalizations involving inpatient surgery in one of 104 VA hospitals during fiscal year 2007. Hospitalization-level cost regression analyses were performed to estimate the excess cost of each of 18 unique postoperative complications. The authors used generalized linear modeling techniques to account for the heavily skewed cost distribution. Costs were measured using an activity-based cost accounting system and complications were assessed based on medical chart review conducted by the VA 'National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The authors found excess costs associated with postoperative complications ranging from $8,338 for "superficial surgical site infection" to $29,595 for "failure to wean within 24 hours in the presence of respiratory complications." The results obtained suggest that quality improvement efforts aimed at reducing postoperative complications can contribute significantly to lowering of hospital costs. © 2011 The Author(s). Source

Mohr D.C.,Center for Organization
American journal of medical quality : the official journal of the American College of Medical Quality

In recent years, hospitals and payers have increased their efforts to improve the quality of patient care by encouraging provider adherence to evidence-based practices. Although the individual provider is certainly essential in the delivery of appropriate care, a team perspective is important when examining variation in quality. In the present study, the authors modeled the relationship between a measure of aggregate job satisfaction for members of primary care teams and objective measures of quality based on process indicators and intermediate outcomes. Multilevel analyses indicated that aggregate job satisfaction ratings were associated with higher values on both types of quality measures. Team-level job satisfaction ratings are a potentially important marker for the effectiveness of primary care teams in managing patient care. Source

Stirman S.W.,National Center for | Stirman S.W.,Boston University | Miller C.J.,VA Boston Healthcare System | Miller C.J.,Center for Organization | And 2 more authors.
Implementation Science

Background: Evidence-based interventions are frequently modified or adapted during the implementation process. Changes may be made to protocols to meet the needs of the target population or address differences between the context in which the intervention was originally designed and the one into which it is implemented [Addict Behav 2011, 36(6):630-635]. However, whether modification compromises or enhances the desired benefits of the intervention is not well understood. A challenge to understanding the impact of specific types of modifications is a lack of attention to characterizing the different types of changes that may occur. A system for classifying the types of modifications that are made when interventions and programs are implemented can facilitate efforts to understand the nature of modifications that are made in particular contexts as well as the impact of these modifications on outcomes of interest.Methods: We developed a system for classifying modifications made to interventions and programs across a variety of fields and settings. We then coded 258 modifications identified in 32 published articles that described interventions implemented in routine care or community settings.Results: We identified modifications made to the content of interventions, as well as to the context in which interventions are delivered. We identified 12 different types of content modifications, and our coding scheme also included ratings for the level at which these modifications were made (ranging from the individual patient level up to a hospital network or community). We identified five types of contextual modifications (changes to the format, setting, or patient population that do not in and of themselves alter the actual content of the intervention). We also developed codes to indicate who made the modifications and identified a smaller subset of modifications made to the ways that training or evaluations occur when evidence-based interventions are implemented. Rater agreement analyses indicated that the coding scheme can be used to reliably classify modifications described in research articles without overly burdensome training.Conclusions: This coding system can complement research on fidelity and may advance research with the goal of understanding the impact of modifications made when evidence-based interventions are implemented. Such findings can further inform efforts to implement such interventions while preserving desired levels of program or intervention effectiveness. © 2013 Stirman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Benzer J.K.,Center for Organization
Journal of general internal medicine

Although pay-for-performance (P4P) has become a central strategy for improving quality in US healthcare, questions persist about the effectiveness of these programs. A key question is whether quality improvement that occurs as a result of P4P programs is sustainable, particularly if incentives are removed. To investigate sustainability of performance levels following removal of performance-based incentives. Observational cohort study that capitalized on a P4P program within the Veterans Health Administration (VA) that included adoption and subsequent removal of performance-based incentives for selected inpatient quality measures. The study sample comprised 128 acute care VA hospitals where performance was assessed between 2004 and 2010. VA system managers set annual performance goals in consultation with clinical leaders, and report performance scores to medical centers on a quarterly basis. These scores inform performance-based incentives for facilities and their managers. Bonuses are distributed based on the attainment of these performance goals. Seven quality of care measures for acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and pneumonia linked to performance-based incentives. Significant improvements in performance were observed for six of seven quality of care measures following adoption of performance-based incentives and were maintained up to the removal of the incentive; subsequently, the observed performance levels were sustained. This is a quasi-experimental study without a comparison group; causal conclusions are limited. The maintenance of performance levels after removal of a performance-based incentive has implications for the implementation of Medicare's value-based purchasing initiative and other P4P programs. Additional research is needed to better understand human and system-level factors that mediate sustainability of performance-based incentives. Source

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