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Moore T.L.,Clemson University | Wang F.,Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technology | Chen H.,Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technology | Grimes S.W.,Clemson University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Some theranostic nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery systems are capable of measuring drug release rates in situ. This can provide quantitative information regarding drug biodistribution, and drug dose that is delivered to cells or tissues. Here, X-ray excited optical luminescent (XEOL) NPs coated with poly(glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (XGP) are used measure the amount of drug released into cells. The photoactive drug protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is loaded into XGP and is able to attenuate the XEOL NP emission. Measuring an increase in XEOL intensity as PpIX is released enables the measurement of drug release into glioblastoma cells (GBM). Biodistribution studies in a BALB/c mouse GBM intracranial xenograft model show significant XGP accumulation at the site of the GBM xenograft within the brain, and not in adjacent healthy brain tissues. There is no uptake of XGP in the heart or kidneys, the primary organs associated with drug and gadolinium ion toxicity. NP toxicity is tested with U-138MG GBM in vitro, and NPs show low cytotoxicity at concentrations of 100 μg/mL. In vivo dose escalation studies in BALB/c mice show no adverse effects at doses up to 75 mg/kg. These theranostic NPs offer an approach to quantitatively measure drug release into cells. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Chen H.,Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technology | Moore T.,Clemson University | Qi B.,Clemson University | Colvin D.C.,Vanderbilt University | And 7 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

One of the greatest challenges in cancer therapy is to develop methods to deliver chemotherapy agents to tumor cells while reducing systemic toxicity to noncancerous cells. A promising approach to localizing drug release is to employ drug-loaded nanoparticles with coatings that release the drugs only in the presence of specific triggers found in the target cells such as pH, enzymes, or light. However, many parameters affect the nanoparticle distribution and drug release rate, and it is difficult to quantify drug release in situ. In this work, we show proof-of-principle for a "smart" radioluminescent nanocapsule with an X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) spectrum that changes during release of the optically absorbing chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. XEOL provides an almost background-free luminescent signal for measuring drug release from particles irradiated by a narrow X-ray beam. We study in vitro pH-triggered release rates of doxorubicin from nanocapsules coated with a pH-responsive polyelectrolyte multilayer using HPLC and XEOL spectroscopy. The doxorubicin was loaded to over 5% by weight and released from the capsule with a time constant in vitro of ∼36 days at pH 7.4 and 21 h at pH 5.0, respectively. The Gd2O2S:Eu nanocapsules are also paramagnetic at room temperature with similar magnetic susceptibility and similarly good MRI T2 relaxivities to Gd2O3, but the sulfur increases the radioluminescence intensity and shifts the spectrum. Empty nanocapsules did not affect cell viability up to concentrations of at least 250 μg/mL. These empty nanocapsules accumulated in a mouse liver and spleen following tail vein injection and could be observed in vivo using XEOL. The particles are synthesized with a versatile template synthesis technique which allows for control of particle size and shape. The XEOL analysis technique opens the door to noninvasive quantification of drug release as a function of nanoparticle size, shape, surface chemistry, and tissue type. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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