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Vansteenkiste J.,University Hospital Gasthuisberg | Glaspy J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Henry D.,Pennsylvania Hospital | Ludwig H.,Center for Oncology and Hematology | And 4 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2012

In anemic patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) raise hemoglobin levels and reduce transfusion requirements, but ESA-related safety concerns exist. To evaluate ESA benefits and risks in lung cancer, we conducted meta-analyses of data from controlled ESA trials conducted in lung cancer patients. Study-level analyses included controlled ESA trials reporting lung cancer mortality, identified from the 2006 Cochrane ESA report and from a systematic search for studies published through December 2010. Patient-level analyses included data from lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in Amgen studies evaluating darbepoetin alfa (DA) vs placebo. Study-level and patient-level analyses examined deaths, progression, and transfusion incidence. Patient-level analyses also examined adverse events (AEs) and fatigue. In a study-level meta-analysis of nine ESA studies of 2342 patients receiving chemotherapy, the ESA odds ratio (OR) was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-1.09) for mortality; the overall random-effects risk difference (95% CI) for mortality was -0.02 (-0.06, 0.02). The ESA OR (95% CI) for disease progression in five chemotherapy studies reporting progression was 0.84 (0.65-1.09). The ESA odds ratio (95% CI) was 0.34 (0.28-0.41) for transfusion incidence. In a patient-level meta-analysis of four studies evaluating 1009 patients through follow-up, the median survival time was 41 weeks with DA and 38 weeks with placebo. During the combined study and follow-up periods, 80% of placebo-group patients and 74% of DA patients died (mortality hazard ratio [HR] 0.90 [95% CI, 0.78-1.03] for DA); results were similar for small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Overall, 87% of placebo patients and 84% of DA patients progressed or died. Fewer DA patients had transfusions (week 5 through end-of-study, DA 19%, placebo 43%). AEs included thrombotic/embolic events (DA 10.5%, placebo 7.2%), cerebrovascular disorders (DA 3.7%, placebo 4.2%), pulmonary edema (DA 0.4%, placebo 1.0%) and pulmonary embolism (DA 1.8%, placebo 0.6%).These meta-analyses suggest that ESAs reduce transfusions without increasing mortality or disease progression in lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Ludwig H.,Center for Oncology and Hematology | Durie B.G.M.,Southwest Oncology Group | McCarthy P.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Palumbo A.,University of Turin | And 23 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Maintaining results of successful induction therapy is an important goal in multiple myeloma. Here, members of the International Myeloma Working Group review the relevant data. Thalidomide maintenance therapy after autologous stem cell transplantation improved the quality of response and increased progression-free survival (PFS) significantly in all 6 studies and overall survival (OS) in 3 of them. In elderly patients, 2 trials showed a significant prolongation of PFS, but no improvement in OS. A meta-analysis revealed a significant risk reduction for PFS/eventfree survival and death. The role of thalidomide maintenance after melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide is not well established. Two trials with lenalidomide maintenance treatment after autologous stem cell transplantation and one study after conventional melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide induction therapy showed a significant risk reduction for PFS and an increase in OS in one of the transplant trials. Maintenance therapy with single-agent bortezomib or in combination with thalidomide or prednisone has been studied. One trial revealed a significantly increased OS with a bortezomib-based induction and bortezomib maintenance therapy compared with conventional induction and thalidomide maintenance treatment. Maintenance treatment can be associated with significant side effects, and none of the drugs evaluated is approved for maintenance therapy. Treatment decisions for individual patients must balance potential benefits and risks carefully, as a widely agreed-on standard is not established. Source


Jager U.,Medical University of Vienna | Fridrik M.,Center for Hematology and Medical Oncology | Zeitlinger M.,Medical University of Vienna | Heintel D.,Center for Oncology and Hematology | And 13 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2012

Background Treatment of follicular lymphoma with rituximab is currently recommended at a dose of 375 mg/m2. We aimed to provide a rationale for optimal dosing and scheduling of this anti-CD20 antibody based on pharmacokinetics. Design and Methods Clinical efficacy of immuno-chemotherapy with rituximab, fludarabine and mitoxantrone followed by 2-monthly rituximab maintenance was evaluated in 29 patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma in a prospective phase II trial (AGMT-NHL9). Pharmacokinetic analysis was assessed in 17 patients. Results Induction treatment resulted in high clinical response rates (complete remission 66%; ORR 100%). Significantly higher complete remission rates were observed in female patients (86 vs. 47%; Odds Ratio 6.8, 95% CI: 1.12; 41.82; P=0.05). Rituximab pharmacokinetic analysis showed a high variability ranging over almost 1 order of magnitude at maintenance cycle 1 (area under the curve 1,540-12,025 g/L*days). Median area under the curve was lower in men (81%) and in patients with initial bone marrow infiltration (76%). Higher rituximab serum concentrations before next therapy (Ctrough) were associated with female sex (P=0.04) as well as with absence of initial bone marrow infiltration (P=0.001). Ctrough correlated with remission quality (complete vs. partial remission; P=0.005) and progression-free survival (P=0.03). A decline in rituximab Ctrough below 25,000 ng/mL was observed 9.5 to 62 months before clinical relapse (P=0.008). Conclusions The results of this pilot trial suggest that more differentiated dosing schedules based on gender and bone marrow infiltration should be explored for rituximab therapy for lymphoma. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01560117). ©2012 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source


Chanan-Khan A.A.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Chanan-Khan A.A.,Mayo Clinic Cancer Center | San Miguel J.F.,University of Salamanca | Jagannath S.,Tisch Cancer Institute | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Renal impairment is a major complication of multiple myeloma. Patients presenting with severe renal impairment represent a greater therapeutic challenge and generally have poorer outcome. However, once patients with renal impairment achieve remission, their outcomes are comparable with those of patients without renal impairment. Therapies that offer substantial activity in this setting are needed. Bortezomib, thalidomide, and lenalidomide have substantially improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma. Here we review the pharmacokinetics, activity, and safety of these agents in patients with renal impairment. Bortezomib can be administered at the full approved dose and schedule in renally impaired patients; similarly, no dose reductions are required with thalidomide. The pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide is affected by its renal route of excretion, and dose adjustments are recommended for moderate/severe impairment. Substantial evidence has emerged showing that these novel agents improve outcomes of patients with renal impairment, including impairment reversal. Bortezomib, thalidomide, and lenalidomide (at the recommended doses) are active options for patients with mild to moderate impairment, although limited data are available for thalidomide. Information on lenalidomide-based combinations is still emerging, but the available data indicate considerable activity. Substantial evidence indicates that bortezomib-high-dose dexamethasone with or without a third drug (e.g., cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, or doxorubicin) is an appropriate option for patients with any degree of renal impairment. ©2012 AACR. Source


Heintel D.,Center for Oncology and Hematology
Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology | Year: 2015

This review discusses promising new approaches in the management of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma that have been recently presented at the annual ASH meeting. Novel insights regarding risk-adapted, tailored therapy as well as improved treatment strategies in relapsed/refractory disease have been presented. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

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