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Ma N.S.,Harvard University | Thompson C.,Boston Childrens Hospital | Weston S.,Center for Nutrition
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Year: 2015

Scurvy was diagnosed in seven children at Boston Children’s Hospital. All of the children had a developmental disorder and autism was the most common. They had a long-standing history of food selectivity with diets devoid of fruits and vegetables, and none of the children were supplemented with a multivitamin. They presented with limp, and an elaborate panel of tests and procedures were undertaken before the diagnosis of scurvy was made. Treatment with vitamin C led to rapid recovery of symptoms. This report emphasizes the importance of considering nutritional causes of musculoskeletal symptoms in children with autism and restrictive diets. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source

Mehta N.M.,Perioperative and Pain Medicine | Mehta N.M.,Center for Nutrition | Smallwood C.D.,Perioperative and Pain Medicine | Graham R.J.,Perioperative and Pain Medicine
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Delivery of adequate nutrients during illness to counteract the metabolic stress response and facilitate healing and tissue repair is an important goal in the care of critically ill children. With recent advances in technology, accurate minute-to-minute gas exchange and energy expenditure measurements are now available in intensive care units. The bedside availability of these devices may allow a titrated approach to energy delivery for patients, ushering in a new era of individualized nutrition therapy. Basic concepts, available monitoring devices, indications, pitfalls, and bedside application of metabolic monitoring are discussed in this article. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source

Li N.,Harvard University | Manji K.P.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Spiegelman D.,Harvard University | Muya A.,Management and Development for Health | And 5 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2013

Objective: To describe the burden of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in a HIV-infected population and explore the demographic and clinical factors associated with the occurrence of pediatric TB. Design: Longitudinal analysis of a cohort of HIV-infected children. Methods: The endpoint of the study was clinically diagnosed TB. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to explore the predictors of incident TB among HIV-infected children under age 15 years after enrollment into the HIV program. Results: The cohort comprised of 5040 children [median age: 5 years, interquartile range (IQR) 1-9 years]. During a median follow-up of 0.8 (IQR 0.1-2.5) years, 376 out of 5040 children met the case definition for TB. The overall incidence of TB was 5.2/100 person-years. In multivariate analyses, older age at enrollment [relative risk (RR) 1.7, 95%, confidence interval (CI) 1.5-1.8], severe wasting (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5), severe immune suppression (RR 2.6, 95% CI1.8-3.8), anemia (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9) and WHO stage IV (RR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5) were all independently associated with a higher risk of TB. In addition, the use of antiretroviral drugs for more than 180 days reduced the risk of TB by 70% (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4). Conclusions: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) use is strongly associated with a reduced risk of tuberculosis among HIV-infected children, and should therefore be included in HIV care and treatment programs. Trials of interventions designed to improve the nutritional and hematologic status of these children should also be performed. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Mehta N.M.,Critical Care Medicine | Mehta N.M.,Center for Nutrition | Mehta N.M.,Harvard University | Bechard L.J.,Center for Nutrition | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: The impact of protein intake on outcomes in pediatric critical illness is unclear. Objective: We examined the association between protein intake and 60-d mortality in mechanically ventilated children. Design: In a prospective, multicenter, cohort study that included 59 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) from 15 countries, we enrolled consecutive children (age: 1 mo to 18 y) who were mechanically ventilated for ≥48 h. We recorded the daily and cumulative mean adequacies of energy and protein delivery as a percentage of the prescribed daily goal during the PICU stay ≤10 d. We examined the association of the adequacy of protein delivery with 60-d mortality and determined variables that predicted protein intake adequacy. Results: We enrolled 1245 subjects (44% female) with a median age of 1.7 y (IQR: 0.4, 7.0 y). A total of 985 subjects received enteral nutrition, 354 (36%) of whom received enteral nutrition via the postpyloric route. Mean ± SD prescribed energy and protein goals were 69 ± 28 kcal/kg per day and 1.9 ± 0.7 g/kg per day, respectively. The mean delivery of enteral energy and protein was 36 ± 35% and 37 ± 38%, respectively, of the prescribed goal. The adequacy of enteral protein intake was significantly associated with 60-d mortality (P < 0.001) after adjustment for disease severity, site, PICU days, and energy intake. In relation to mean enteral protein intake <20%, intake ≥60% of the prescribed goal was associated with an OR of 0.14 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52; P = 0.003) for 60-d mortality. Early initiation, postpyloric route, shorter interruptions, larger PICU size, and a dedicated dietitian in the PICU were associated with higher enteral protein delivery. Conclusions: Delivery of >60% of the prescribed protein intake is associated with lower odds of mortality in mechanically ventilated children. Optimal prescription and modifiable practices at the bedside might enhance enteral protein delivery in the PICU with a potential for improved outcomes. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Martinez E.E.,Perioperative and Pain Medicine | Martinez E.E.,Harvard University | Bechard L.J.,Center for Nutrition | Mehta N.M.,Perioperative and Pain Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Background: Enteral nutrition (EN) delivery is associated with improved outcomes in critically ill patients. We aimed to describe EN practices, including details of algorithms and individual bedside practices, in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Methods: Available EN algorithm details from 31 international PICUs were obtained. Daily nutrient intake data from 524 mechanically ventilated patients, 1 month to 18 years old, were prospectively documented, including EN delivery, adjunct therapies, and energy prescription. Practices associated with higher percentage adequacy of EN delivery were determined by regression analysis. Results: Nine EN algorithms were available. All algorithms defined advancement and EN intolerance; 7 of 9 defined intolerance by gastric residual volume; 3 of 9 recommended nutrition screening and fasting guidelines. Few elements were in agreement with the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. Of the 341 patients who received EN exclusively 32.9% received ≥66.6% of prescribed energy on day 7. Percentage adequacy of EN delivered was inversely associated with days to EN initiation (-8.92; P <.001) and hours per EN interruption (-1.65; P =.001) and was not associated with the use of algorithms, promotility agents, or postpyloric feeding. Conclusions: A minority of PICUs employ EN algorithms; recommendations were variable and not in agreement with national guidelines. Optimal EN delivery was achieved in less than one-third of our cohort. EN adjunct therapies were not associated with increased EN delivery. Studies aimed at promoting early EN and decreasing interruptions may optimize energy delivery in the PICU. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source

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