Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

Quetta, Pakistan

Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

Quetta, Pakistan

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Baloch A.H.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Khosa A.N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Bangulzai N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Sadia H.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Indian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Introduction: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common type of breast cancer accounting for 5%-15% of all the breast cancer cases. The present study was performed on 171 breast cancer patients from Balochistan registered in CENAR (Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy), Quetta. Materials and Methods: Written consent was obtained from the patients. The history of the disease was taken from the patients, and the patients' enrollment files were retrieved. Results: Of the 171 patients, 5 (2.96%) were diagnosed with ILC with tumor Grade II, and stage of the cancer reported was Grade III in all the 5 patients affected with ILC. Conclusion: ILC is the second most common type of breast cancer diagnosed with comparatively lower grade but almost reported infiltrating. © 2017 Indian Journal of Cancer.


Ahmad I.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Ahmad I.,Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy | Rehman A.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Khan J.A.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy | Year: 2015

Summary Increase in local temperature during light exposure of biological tissues plays an important role in determining the fate of most therapeutic modalities. Variations in the optical properties (absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, anisotropy factor, optical depth etc.) of two cancer cell lines "Rhobdomyosarcoma and Cervical carcinoma" due to gradual increase in temperature were determine quantitatively with a double integrating sphere system. It was observed that all three coefficients showed decreasing tendency as the temperature increases for both the cell lines except for scattering coefficient of HeLa which remain constant within error limit. Anisotropy factor for both cell lines increased indicating temperature dependent subcellular density variations. Temperature dependent optical properties information may lead to precise dosimetry and could help clinicians for predicting the therapeutic modality outcome. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Baloch A.H.,BUITEMS | Shuja J.,Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy | Daud S.,Center for Advanced Molecular Biology | Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | And 9 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Purpose: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy of females throughout the world with one million new cases each year. In Pakistan, the burden of breast cancer disease is high with late stage presentation being a common feature, more than half being stage III or stage IV. The objective of this study was to study various aspects, patterns and risk factors in breast cancer patients of Balochistan. Method: Present study was performed on 134 patients of breast cancer who were registered in CENAR. The patients were interviewed by providing a questionnaire. Informed consent was taken from all the patients who took part in this study after explanation of the study aims. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated andbiopsy reports were obtained from patients files. All the cases were classified with respect to age, gender, ethnic group (Baloch, Pashtoon, Punjabi, Afghani, Hazara) BMI, cancer type, cancer grade, hormonal status, side of the cancer, fertility and marital status. Results: Out of 134 patients, the most common ethnic group was Pashtoon with a total of 42 and the common age group was 41-50 years with a total of 51. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) was the most common type, accounting for in 128 patients (95.5%) followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Conclusion: Pashtoon was the most common ethnic group, IDC was common type and most of the patients had an ER/PR positive hormonal status.


Baloch A.H.,BUITEMS | Daud S.,Center for Advanced Molecular Biology | Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | Luqman M.,BUITEMS | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

CHEK2 encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase which plays a critical role in DNA damage signaling pathways. CHEK2 directly phosphorylates and regulates the functions of p53 and BRCA1. Most women with breast and/or ovarian cancer are not carriers of mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2. Multiple studies have shown that a CHEK2*1100delC confers about a two-fold increased risk of breast cancer in unselected females and a tenfold increase in males. Moreover, studies have shown that first-degree relatives of bilateral breast cancer cases who carried the CHEK2*1100delC allele had an eight-fold increased risk of breast cancer. It has been suggested that CHEK2 functions as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for cancers and multiplies the risks associated with other gene(s) to increase cancer risk. The main goal of this study was to evaluate and to compare the role of truncating mutations, splice junction mutations and rare missense substitutions in breast cancer susceptibility gene CHEK2. Present study was performed on 140 individuals including 70 breast cancer patients both with and without family history and 70 normal individuals. Written consent was obtained and 3 ml intravenous blood was drawn from all the subjects. DNA was extracted from all the samples through inorganic method published already. Primers were synthesized for all the 14 exons of CHEK2 gene. Coding and adjacent intronic sequences of CHEK2 gene were amplified and sequenced. Two genetic variants (p.H371Y, p.D438Y) were found in exon 10 and exon 11 of gene CHEK2 which were not found in any of the 70 control individuals from same geographical area and ethnic group. The genetic variant c.1312G>T (p.D438Y) identified in a patient with a family history of breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is first mutation scanning study of gene CHEK2 from Balochistan population. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.


Ahmad I.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Ahmad I.,Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy | Ahmad M.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Ahmad M.,University of Peshawar | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2015

Mueller matrix polarimetry along with polar decomposition algorithm was employed for the characterization of ex vivo normal and adenocarcinoma human colon tissues by polarized light in the visible spectral range (425-725 nm). Six derived polarization metrics [total diattenuation (DT), retardance (RT), depolarization (ΔT), linear diattenuation (DL), retardance (δ), and depolarization (ΔL)] were compared for normal and adenocarcinoma colon tissue samples. The results show that all six polarimetric properties for adenocarcinoma samples were significantly higher as compared to the normal samples for all wavelengths. The Wilcoxon rank sum test illustrated that total retardance is a good candidate for the discrimination of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples. Support vector machine classification for normal and adenocarcinoma based on the four polarization properties spectra (ΔT, ΔL, RT,and δ) yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, while both DT and DL showed 66.6%, 33.3%, and 83.3% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The combination of polarization analysis and given classification methods provides a framework to distinguish the normal and cancerous tissues. © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Iftikhar A.,Center for Nuclear Medicine And Radiotherapy | Wazir M.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Kakakhail M.B.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Sbilal A.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011

Background: During radiotherapy treatment, critical organs are shielded using lead and cerrobend blocks. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of lead and cerrobend shielding blocks on incident photon beam. Methods: Collimator scatter factors were measured for open square fields (3 × 3 cm to 40 × 40 cm) defined by collimator jaws and for fields blocked down to smaller asymmetric fields by using five different Lead and Cerrobend blocks for 6 and 15 MV photon beams from a Varian Clinac 2100C accelerator. The measurements in air were performed using Farmer type ionization chamber fitted with acrylic build up caps. Results: The Block Tray Factor (BTF) increased with field size for both 6 and 15 MV photon beams. In case of Lead blocks, the extreme variations in BTF for 6 MV photon beam are 0.70 %, 0.84 %, 0.56%, 0.80 % and 1.15 %. Similarly, for 15 MV the maximum variations for Lead blocks are 0.46 %, 0.60 %, 0.83 %, 0.88 % and 1.10 % respectively. No significant difference has been observed in the BTF of Cerrobend blocks for 6 and 15 MV photon beams. Discussion: The dose received by a point in air apparently shielded by lead blocks has three main contributions: 1. Due to primary photon beam transmitted through the block, 2. Due to scattered photons, 3. Due to contamination electrons. These three factors collectively cause the increase in BTF with increasing field size, energy, and decreasing block size. Conclusions: The effect of shielding on the beam output increases with field size, beam energy and shield size. This increase follows almost the same pattern for both lead and cerrobend shielding blocks. Therefore shield factors for all field sizes, beam energies and shield sizes should be determined separately for precise patient dose delivery.


Ahmad I.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Ahmad I.,Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy | Ahmad M.,University of Peshawar | Khan K.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Ikram M.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy | Year: 2016

Optical polarimetry was employed for assessment of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissue samples from human skin. Polarimetric analyses revealed that depolarization and retardance for healthy tissue group were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to BCC tissue group. Histopathology indicated that these differences partially arise from BCC-related characteristic changes in tissue morphology. Wilks lambda statistics demonstrated the potential of all investigated polarimetric properties for computer assisted classification of the two tissue groups. Based on differences in polarimetric properties, partial least square (PLS) regression classified the samples with 100% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These findings indicate that optical polarimetry together with PLS statistics hold promise for automated pathology classification. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Abbasi M.A.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Mahmood H.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Faheem M.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Khan K.A.,Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy | Irfan J.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2012

Carcinosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare and aggressive tumour with two distinct cell lines comprising epithelial and mesenchymal components, with few cases reported in the literature. The prognosis of carcinosarcoma breast is less favourable compared to more common types of breast cancers such as infiltrating ductal or lobular carcinomas. These tumours form a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A case of carcinosarcoma breast in a 36 years old woman is presented here.

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