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Gontkovsky S.T.,Center for Neuroscience and Neurological Recovery
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition | Year: 2014

The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) were administered to 46 outpatients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). MMSE total raw score was significantly and positively correlated with all WAIS-IV indexes, even when controlling for the effects of participant educational level, with the strongest relationship being with Full Scale IQ. These results suggest that clinicians consider patient intellectual functioning, in particular Full Scale IQ, when diagnosing neurocognitive impairment based on screening with the MMSE in individuals with MS. © 2014 © Taylor & Francis.

Gontkovsky S.T.,Center for Neuroscience and Neurological Recovery
Brain Injury | Year: 2011

Study design: Case report. Background: Systemic sclerosis is a rare and chronic autoimmune disease of the body's connective tissue that historically has not been associated with primary involvement of the central nervous system. Objective: To describe the neuropsychological sequelae of systemic sclerosis in a 56-year-old male. Results: Neurocognitive deficits were demonstrated by the patient on select components of memory and language as well as across measures of executive functioning. Significant depression and reduced self-concept were also identified. Discussion: Neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with systemic sclerosis has largely been ignored in the clinical setting. Identification of neurocognitive impairment and emotional stress can facilitate interventions that consequently may increase adherence with medical treatment and increase quality-of-life. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.

Chow J.W.,Center for Neuroscience and Neurological Recovery | Knudson D.V.,Texas State University
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2011

A deterministic model is a modeling paradigm that determines the relationships between a movement outcome measure and the biomechanical factors that produce such a measure. This review provides an overview of the use of deterministic models in biomechanics research, a historical summary of this research, and an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of using deterministic models. The deterministic model approach has been utilized in technique analysis over the last three decades, especially in swimming, athletics field events, and gymnastics. In addition to their applications in sports and exercise biomechanics, deterministic models have been applied successfully in research on selected motor skills. The advantage of the deterministic model approach is that it helps to avoid selecting performance or injury variables arbitrarily and to provide the necessary theoretical basis for examining the relative importance of various factors that influence the outcome of a movement task. Several disadvantages of deterministic models, such as the use of subjective measures for the performance outcome, were discussed. It is recommended that exercise and sports biomechanics scholars should consider using deterministic models to help identify meaningful dependent variables in their studies. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Nevels R.M.,Jackson State University | Dehon E.E.,Jackson State University | Alexander K.,Jackson State University | Gontkovsky S.T.,Center for Neuroscience and Neurological Recovery
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology | Year: 2010

Research examining the role of pharmacological therapy in the treatment of children and adolescents with clinical disorders is growing. Clinical disorders that present with comorbid aggression can add a challenge to treatment. Child and adolescent neuropsychiatric disorders associated with aggression include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, various mood disorders and in particular bipolar disorders/pediatric mania, schizophrenia, mental retardation, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. This review describes the psychopharmacy to treat these disorders and the aggression that often appears comorbidly. Existing literature regarding the efficacy and safety of psychotropics for youth with neuropsychiatric disorders also is discussed. In addition, general guidelines for psychopharmacy of aggression in children and adolescents are presented. Studies reviewed in this article provide evidence for the use of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, beta blockers, lithium, anticonvulsant mood-stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, traditional antipsychotics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treating pediatric aggression with the choice of medication dependent on symptomology. Despite increased support for pediatric psychotropic use, there is a need for more long-term safety and efficacy studies of existing medications and newer, safer, and more effective agents with fewer side effects for the pharmacological treatment of all childhood disorders in which aggression is prominent. © 2010 American Psychological Association.

Chow J.W.,Center for Neuroscience and Neurological Recovery | Yablon S.A.,Center for Neuroscience and Neurological Recovery | Yablon S.A.,University of Alberta | Stokic D.S.,Center for Neuroscience and Neurological Recovery
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2012

Objective: Examine (1) coactivation between tibialis anterior (TA) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles during stance phase of gait in patients with moderate-to-severe resting hypertonia after stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) and (2) the relationship between coactivation and stretch velocity-dependent increase in MG activity. Methods: Gait and surface EMG were recorded from patients with stroke or TBI (11 each) and corresponding healthy controls (n= 11) to determine the magnitude and duration of TA-MG coactivation. The frequency and gain of positive (>0) and significant positive (p< 0.05) EMG-lengthening velocity (EMG-LV) slope in MG were related to coactivation parameters. Results: The magnitude of coactivation was increased on the more-affected (MA) side, whereas the duration was prolonged on the less-affected (LA) side of both stroke and TBI patients. The difference reached significance during the initial and late double support. The magnitude of coactivation positively correlated with the gain of significant positive EMG-LV slope in TBI patients. Conclusions: Increased coactivation between TA and MG during initial and late double support is a unique feature of gait in stroke and TBI patients with muscle hypertonia. Significance: Increased coactivation may represent an adaptation to compensate for impaired stability during step transition after stroke and TBI. © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

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