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Leeb R.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Gubler M.,ETH Zurich | Tavella M.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Miller H.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Millan J.D.R.,Center for Neuroprosthetics
2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC'10 | Year: 2010

To patients who have lost the functionality of their hands as a result of a severe spinal cord injury or brain stroke, the development of new techniques for grasping is indispensable for reintegration and independency in daily life. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of residual muscles can reproduce the most dominant grasping tasks and can be initialized by brain signals. However, due to the very complex hand anatomy and current limitations in FES-technology with surface electrodes, these grasp patterns cannot be smoothly executed. In this paper, we present an adaptable passive hand orthosis which is capable of producing natural and smooth movements when coupled with FES. It evenly synchronizes the grasping movements and applied forces on all fingers, allowing for naturalistic gestures and functional grasps of everyday objects. The orthosis is also equipped with a lock, which allows it to remain in the desired position without the need for long-term stimulation. Furthermore, we quantify improvements offered by the orthosis compare them with natural grasps on healthy subjects. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Borton D.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Bonizzato M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Beauparlant J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | DiGiovanna J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | And 10 more authors.
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2014

In this conceptual review, we highlight our strategy for, and progress in the development of corticospinal neuroprostheses for restoring locomotor functions and promoting neural repair after thoracic spinal cord injury in experimental animal models. We specifically focus on recent developments in recording and stimulating neural interfaces, decoding algorithms, extraction of real-time feedback information, and closed-loop control systems. Each of these complex neurotechnologies plays a significant role for the design of corticospinal neuroprostheses. Even more challenging is the coordinated integration of such multifaceted technologies into effective and practical neuroprosthetic systems to improve movement execution, and augment neural plasticity after injury. In this review we address our progress in rodent animal models to explore the viability of a technology-intensive strategy for recovery and repair of the damaged nervous system. The technical, practical, and regulatory hurdles that lie ahead along the path toward clinical applications are enormous - and their resolution is uncertain at this stage. However, it is imperative that the discoveries and technological developments being made across the field of neuroprosthetics do not stay in the lab, but instead reach clinical fruition at the fastest pace possible. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. Source

Romeo A.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Lacour S.P.,Center for Neuroprosthetics
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS | Year: 2015

Electronic skins aim at providing distributed sensing and computation in a large-area and elastic membrane. Control and addressing of high-density soft sensors will be achieved when thin film transistor matrices are also integrated in the soft carrier substrate. Here, we report on the design, manufacturing and characterization of metal oxide thin film transistors on these stretchable substrates. The TFTs are integrated onto an engineered silicone substrate with embedded strain relief to protect the devices from catastrophic cracking. The TFT stack is composed of an amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O active layer, a hybrid AlxOy/Parylene dielectric film, gold electrodes and interconnects. All layers are prepared and patterned with planar, low temperature and dry processing. We demonstrate the interconnected IGZO TFTs sustain applied tensile strain up to 20% without electrical degradation and mechanical fracture. Active devices are critical for distributed sensing. The compatibility of IGZO TFTs with soft and biocompatible substrates is an encouraging step towards wearable electronic skins. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Adler D.,University of Geneva | Herbelin B.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Similowski T.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Similowski T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2014

Bodily self-consciousness depends on the processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. It can be disrupted by inducing signal conflicts. Breathing, at the crossroad between interoception and exteroception, should contribute to bodily self-consciousness. We induced visuo-respiratory conflicts in 17 subjects presented with a virtual body or a parallelepidedal object flashing synchronously or asynchronously with their breathing. A questionnaire detected illusory changes in bodily self-consciousness and breathing agency (the feeling of sensing one's breathing command). Changes in self-location were tested by measuring reaction time during mental ball drop (MBD). Synchronous illumination changed the perceived location of breathing (body: p = 0.008 vs. asynchronous; object: p = 0.013). It resulted in a significant change in breathing agency, but no changes in self-identification. This was corroborated by prolonged MBD reaction time (body: +0.045. s, 95%CI [0.013; 0.08], p = 0.007). We conclude that breathing modulates bodily self-consciousness. We also conclude that one can induce the irruption of unattended breathing into consciousness without modifying respiratory mechanics or gas exchange. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Saeedi S.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Chavarriaga R.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Iturrate I.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Millan J.D.R.,Center for Neuroprosthetics | Carlson T.,University College London
Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics | Year: 2014

One of the challenges in using brain computer interfaces over extended periods of time is the uncertainty in the system. This uncertainty can be due to the user's internal states, the non stationarity of the brain signals, or the variation of the class discriminative information over time. Therefore, the users are often unable to maintain the same accuracy and time efficiency in delivering BCI commands. In this paper, we tackle the issue of variation in BCI command delivery time for a motor imagery task with the aim of providing assistance through adaptive shared control. This is important mainly because having long delivery of mental commands leads to uncertainty in the user's intent classification and limits the responsiveness of the system. In order to address this issue, we separate the trials into long and short groups so that we have the same number of trials in each group. We demonstrate that using only a few samples at the beginning of the trial, we are able to predict whether the current trial will be short or long with high accuracies (70% - 86%). Eventually, this prediction enables us to tune the shared control parameters to overcome the issue of uncertainty. © 2014 IEEE. Source

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