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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Boccardi M.,LENITEM | Ganzola R.,LENITEM | Bocchetta M.,LENITEM | Pievani M.,LENITEM | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2011

Manual segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MR) is the gold standard for evaluating hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimers disease (AD). Nonetheless, different segmentation protocols provide up to 2.5-fold volume differences. Here we surveyed the most frequently used segmentation protocols in the AD literature as a preliminary step for international harmonization. The anatomical landmarks (anteriormost and posteriormost slices, superior, inferior, medial, and lateral borders) were identified from 12 published protocols for hippocampal manual segmentation ([Abbreviation] first author, publication year: [B] Bartzokis, 1998; [C] Convit, 1997; [dTM] deToledo-Morrell, 2004; [H] Haller, 1997; [J] Jack, 1994; [K] Killiany, 1993; [L] Lehericy, 1994; [M] Malykhin, 2007; [Pa] Pantel, 2000; [Pr] Pruessner, 2000; [S] Soininen, 1994; [W] Watson, 1992). The hippocampi of one healthy control and one AD patient taken from the 1.5T MR ADNI database were segmented by a single rater according to each protocol. The accuracy of the protocols interpretation and translation into practice was checked with lead authors of protocols through individual interactive web conferences. Semantically harmonized landmarks and differences were then extracted, regarding: (a) the posteriormost slice, protocol [B] being the most restrictive, and [H, M, Pa, Pr, S] the most inclusive; (b) inclusion [C, dTM, J, L, M, Pr, W] or exclusion [B, H, K, Pa, S] of alveus/fimbria; (c) separation from the parahippocampal gyrus, [C] being the most restrictive, [B, dTM, H, J, Pa, S] the most inclusive. There were no substantial differences in the definition of the anteriormost slice. This survey will allow us to operationalize differences among protocols into tracing units, measure their impact on the repeatability and diagnostic accuracy of manual hippocampal segmentation, and finally develop a harmonized protocol. © 2011 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Bergouignan L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bergouignan L.,Karolinska Institutet | Bergouignan L.,Center for Neuroimaging Research | Lefranc J.P.,Pitie Salpetriere Hospital | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Neuroimaging studies show the hippocampus is a crucial node in the neural network supporting episodic autobiographical memory retrieval. Stress-related psychiatric disorders, namely Major Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), are related to reduced hippocampus volume. However, this is not the case for remitted breast cancer patients with co-morbid stress-related psychiatric disorders. This exception may be due to the fact that, consequently to the cancer experience as such, this population might already be characterized by a reduced hippocampus with an episodic autobiographical memory deficit. Methodology: We scanned, with a 3T Siemens TRIO, 16 patients who had lived through a "standard experience of breast cancer" (breast cancer and a standard treatment in remission since 18 month) in the absence of any associated stress-related psychiatric or neurological disorder and 21 matched controls. We then assessed their episodic autobiographical memory retrieval ability. Principal Findings: Remitted breast cancer patients had both a significantly smaller hippocampus and a significant deficit in episodic autobiographical memory retrieval. The hippocampus atrophy was characterized by a smaller posterior hippocampus. The posterior hippocampus volume was intimately related to the ability to retrieve negative memories and to the past experience of breast cancer or not. Conclusions/Significance: These results provide two main findings: (1) we identify a new population with a specific reduction in posterior hippocampus volume that is independent of any psychiatric or neurological pathology; (2) we show the intimate relation of the posterior hippocampus to the ability to retrieve episodic autobiographical memories. These are significant findings as it is the first demonstration that indicates considerable long-term effects of living through the experience of breast cancer and shows very specific hippocampal atrophy with a functional deficit without any presence of psychiatric pathology. © 2011 Bergouignan et al. Source


Henry T.R.,University of Minnesota | Chupin M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Lehericy S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Lehericy S.,Center for Neuroimaging Research | And 5 more authors.
Radiology | Year: 2011

Purpose: To determine if ultrahigh-field-strength magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to detect subregional hippocampal alterations. Materials and Methods: Subjects provided written consent to participate in this prospective institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study. T1- and T2-weighted 7-T brain MR images were acquired in 11 healthy subjects and eight patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In all subjects, images were qualitatively examined for evidence of hippocampal atrophy, signal change, and malrotation with the Bernasconi definition, and digitations of the hippocampal heads were counted (agreement was measured with the κ statistic). Data were analyzed quantitatively with manual subregional hippocampal body segmentation. Subregional data in individual subjects with TLE were compared with data in control subjects to detect deviation from the control range for volume measures on each side and with asymmetry indexes. Results: All eight patients with TLE had hippocampal abnormalities on the epileptogenic side. Subregional analysis revealed selective lateral Ammon horn atrophy in six patients and diffuse Ammon horn and dentate gyrus atrophy in one patient. Paucity of hippocampal digitations occurred on the epileptogenic side in all patients with TLE and also on the contralateral side in three patients (interrater κ value, 0.80). Hippocampal malrotation was observed in three patients with TLE and four control subjects. Conclusion: Ultrahigh-field-strength MR imaging permitted detection of selectively greater Ammon horn atrophy in patients with TLE and hippocampal sclerosis. Paucity of digitations is a deformity of the hippocampal head that was detected independent of hippocampal atrophy in patients with mesial TLE. © RSNA, 2011. Source


Yao B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Yao B.,Center for Neuroimaging Research | Hametner S.,Medical University of Vienna | Van Gelderen P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Neocortical lesions (NLs) are an important pathological component of multiple sclerosis (MS), but their visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains challenging.Objectives: We aimed at assessing the sensitivity of multi echo gradient echo (ME-GRE) T2-weighted MRI at 7.0 Tesla in depicting NLs compared to myelin and iron staining.Methods: Samples from two MS patients were imaged post mortem using a whole body 7T MRI scanner with a 24-channel receive-only array. Isotropic 200 micron resolution images with varying T2weighting were reconstructed from the ME-GRE data and converted into R2maps. Immunohistochemical staining for myelin (proteolipid protein, PLP) and diaminobenzidine-enhanced Turnbull blue staining for iron were performed.Results: Prospective and retrospective sensitivities of MRI for the detection of NLs were 48% and 67% respectively. We observed MRI maps detecting only a small portion of 20 subpial NLs extending over large cortical areas on PLP stainings. No MRI signal changes suggestive of iron accumulation in NLs were observed. Conversely, R2 maps indicated iron loss in NLs, which was confirmed by histological quantification.Conclusions: High-resolution post mortem imaging using R2 and magnitude maps permits detection of focal NLs. However, disclosing extensive subpial demyelination with MRI remains challenging. Source


Delmaire C.,Center for Neuroimaging Research | Dumas E.M.,Leiden University | Sharman M.A.,Center for Neuroimaging Research | van den Bogaard S.J.A.,Leiden University | And 14 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2013

Neuropathological studies in Huntington disease (HD) have demonstrated neuronal loss in the striatum, as well as in other brain regions including the cortex. With diffusion tensor MRI we evaluated the hypothesis that the clinical dysfunction in HD is related to regionally specific lesions of circuit-specific cortico-basal ganglia networks rather than to the striatum only. We included 27 HD and 24 controls from the TRACK-HD Paris cohort. The following assessments were used: self-paced tapping tasks, trail B making test (TMT), University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT), and apathy scores from the problem behaviors assessment. Group comparisons of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity and correlations were performed using voxel-based analysis. In the cortex, HD patients showed significant correlations between: (i) self paced tapping and mean diffusivity in the parietal lobe at 1.8 Hz and prefrontal areas at 3 Hz, (ii) UPSIT and mean diffusivity in the parietal, and median temporal lobes, the cingulum and the insula, and fractional anisotropy in the insula and the external capsule, (iii) TMT B and mean diffusivity in the white matter of the superior frontal, orbital, temporal, superior parietal and post central areas, and (iv) apathy and fractional anisotropy in the white matter of the rectus gyrus. In the basal ganglia, we found correlations between the self paced tapping, UPSIT, TMT tests, and mean diffusivity in the anterior part of the putamen and the caudate nucleus. In conclusion, disruption of motor, associative and limbic cortico-striatal circuits differentially contribute to the clinical signs of the disease. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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