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Guo Y.,University of Southern California | Wang Z.,University of Southern California | Wang Z.,Center for Neurobiology of Stress | Mayer E.A.,Center for Neurobiology of Stress | And 3 more authors.
NeuroReport | Year: 2015

Early life stress is a risk factor for developing functional pain disorders. The 'limited bedding' (LB) model elicits psychological stress in the dam and her pups by providing minimal nesting material following delivery. Little is known about the effects of LB on visceral pain. Rats (female, male) were exposed to LB on postnatal days 2-9. Electromyographic visceromotor responses were recorded at the age of 11-12 weeks during titrated colorectal distension. LB exposure resulted in significant visceral hyperalgesia in both sexes. Sex differences were demonstrated only in nonstressed controls, with females showing a greater visceromotor response. Our results prepare the way for use of the LB model in studying the development of visceral pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health.

Stengel A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Tache Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tache Y.,Center for Neurobiology of Stress
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Early on, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a hallmark brain peptide mediating many components of the stress response, was shown to affect food intake inducing a robust anorexigenic response when injected into the rodent brain. Subsequently, other members of the CRF signaling family have been identified, namely urocortin (Ucn) 1, Ucn 2, and Ucn 3 which were also shown to decrease food intake upon central or peripheral injection. However, the kinetics of feeding suppression was different with an early decrease following intracerebroventricular injection of CRF and a delayed action of Ucns contrasting with the early onset after systemic injection. CRF and Ucns bind to two distinct G-protein coupled membrane receptors, the CRF1 and CRF2. New pharmacological tools such as highly selective peptide CRF1 or CRF2 agonists or antagonists along with genetic knock-in or knock-out models have allowed delineating the primary role of CRF2 involved in the anorexic response to exogenous administration of CRF and Ucns. Several stressors trigger behavioral changes including suppression of feeding behavior which are mediated by brain CRF receptor activation. The present review will highlight the state-of-knowledge on the effects and mechanisms of action of CRF/Ucns-CRF1/2 signaling under basal conditions and the role in the alterations of food intake in response to stress. © 2014 Stengel and Taché.

Saito Y.A.,Mayo Medical School | Mitra N.,University of Pennsylvania | Mayer E.A.,Center for Neurobiology of Stress
Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Functional gastrointestinal disorders are complex symptom-based disorders without agreed upon biomarkers or pathophysiology. A better understanding of the genetic architecture of these disorders would help to better identify their complex biology and explain the common comorbidity with other disorders of persistent pain, mood, and affect, as well as possibly make it possible to identify subgroups of patients who respond to customized therapies. In contrast to monogenic diseases, polygenic diseases and traits are characterized by the contribution of common variants in a large number of genes, as well as environmental factors, to the vulnerability of an individual. Family and twin studies have clearly established a genetic component in irritable bowel syndrome. Although candidate gene studies have identified a few gene polymorphisms that may be correlated with the syndrome, small sample size, lack of reproducibility in large data sets, and the unreliability of the clinical phenotype require caution when extrapolating to a major role of any of the reported polymorphisms in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Future progress in this area will require better characterization of intermediate phenotypes with large effect size for the clinical phenotype, as well as consideration of gene-gene, environment-gene (epigenetics), and sex-gene interactions, genome-wide association, and whole genome sequencing approaches in large data sets. © 2010 AGA Institute.

Stengel A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Wang L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Goebel-Stengel M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tache Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tache Y.,Center for Neurobiology of Stress
NeuroReport | Year: 2011

Kisspeptin is distributed not only in brain areas for regulating reproduction but also in nuclei involved in feeding control. Whether kisspeptin alters food intake is unknown in mice. We examined how kisspeptin-10 influences feeding after intracerebroventricular injection in mice using automated monitoring. Kisspeptin-10 (0.3, 1, and 3 μg/mouse) dose-dependently inhibited the feeding response to an overnight fast by 50, 95, and 90% respectively, during the 2-3 h period postinjection. The 1μg/mouse dose reduced the 4-h cumulative food intake by 28% whereas intraperitoneal injection (10 μg/mouse) did not. The decreased 4-h food intake was due to reduced meal frequency (-45%/4 h), whereas meal size and gastric emptying were not altered. These data suggest that kisspeptin may be a negative central regulator of feeding by increasing satiety. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Miampamba M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Miampamba M.,Avelas Biosciences | Million M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tache Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tache Y.,Center for Neurobiology of Stress
Peptides | Year: 2011

We previously showed that medullary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or the stable TRH agonist, RX-77368 administered intracisternally induces vagal-dependent activation of gastric myenteric neurons and prevents post surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats. We investigated whether abdominal surgery alters intracisternal (ic) RX-77368 (50 ng)-induced gastric myenteric neuron activation. Under 10 min enflurane anesthesia, rats underwent an ic injection of saline or RX-77368 followed by a laparotomy and a 1-min cecal palpation, or no surgery and were euthanized 90 min later. Longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus whole-mount preparations of gastric corpus and antrum were processed for immunohistochemical detection of Fos alone or double labeled with protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In the non surgery groups, ic RX-77368 induced a 17 fold increase in Fos-expression in both gastric antrum and corpus myenteric neurons compared to saline injected rats. PGP 9.5 ascertained the neuronal identity of myenteric cells expressing Fos. In the abdominal surgery groups, ic RX-77368 induced a significant increase in Fos-expression in both the corpus and antrum myenteric ganglia compared with ic saline injected rats which has no Fos in the gastric myenteric ganglia. However, the response was reduced by 73-78% compared with that induced by ic RX 77368 without surgery. Abundant VAChT positive nerve fibers were present around Fos positive neurons. These results indicate a bidirectional interaction between central vagal stimulation of gastric myenteric neurons and abdominal surgery. The modulation of gastric vagus-myenteric neuron activity could play an important role in the recovery phase of postoperative gastric ileus. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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