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News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

(AP) — China has launched its first aircraft carrier built entirely on its own, in a demonstration of the growing technical sophistication of its defense industries and determination to safeguard its maritime territorial claims and crucial trade routes. The 50,000-ton carrier was towed from its dockyard just after 9 a.m. Wednesday following a ceremony in the northern port city of Dalian, where its predecessor, the Soviet-built Liaoning, also underwent extensive refurbishing before being commissioned in 2012, the Ministry of National Defense said. Development of the new carrier began in 2013 and construction in late 2015. It's expected to be formally commissioned sometime before 2020, after sea trials and the arrival of its full air complement. Vice chairman of China's Central Military Commission and Communist Party Central Committee member Fan Changlong presided over the launch, which came just three days after the anniversary of the People's Liberation Army Navy's symbolic founding in 1949. Also attending was navy commander Vice Adm. Shen Jinlong, a former commander of the South Sea Fleet responsible for defending China's claim to virtually the entire South China Sea. Reports of the launch said a bottle of champagne was broken across the ship's bow and other craft in the port sounded their horns in celebration. Like the 60,000-ton Liaoning, which was purchased from the Ukraine, the new carrier is based on the Soviet Kuznetsov class design, with a ski jump-style deck for taking off and a conventional oil-fueled steam turbine power plant. That limits the weight of payloads its planes can carry, its speed and the amount of time it can spend at sea relative to American nuclear-powered carriers. The main hull of the new carrier has been completed and its power supply put into place. Next up are mooring tests and the debugging of its electronic systems, the Defense Ministry said. China is believed to be planning to build at least two and possibly as many as four additional carriers, with one of them, the Type 002, reported to be already under construction at a shipyard outside Shanghai. They are expected to be closer in size to the U.S. Navy's nuclear-powered 100,000-ton Nimitz class ships, with flat flight decks and catapults to allow planes to launch with more bombs and fuel aboard. Along with their role in protecting China's maritime interests, Chinese naval strategists see the carrier program as "about having naval power commensurate with China's international status, to impress both external and domestic audiences," said Michael Chase, an expert on the Chinese military at U.S. think tank the RAND Corporation. The new carrier "is likely to be seen as further evidence of China's desire to become the most powerful and influential country in the region," Chase said. That will be especially worrying to Indian security analysts who are already concerned about Beijing's ambitions in the Indian Ocean, he said. India, along with Japan and Taiwan which also view Chinese carriers as threats, will likely respond by building new submarines and anti-ship missiles, said Ian Easton, a research Fellow at The Project 2049 Institute in Arlington, Virginia. China's "expansionist behavior in the South China Sea and its aggressive efforts to undermine the security of Taiwan and Japan, in particular, have translated into a situation where few countries now trust that Beijing has benign motives," Easton said. China claims Taiwan as its own territory to be brought under control by force if necessary, and was seen as advertising that threat when it sailed the Liaoning through the Taiwan Strait earlier this year. According to Chinese reports, the new, as yet unnamed, carrier will carry 24 Shenyang J-15 fighters, based on the Russian Sukhoi Su-33, along with 12 helicopters for anti-submarine warfare, airborne early warning and rescue operations. That compares to 85-90 fixed wing aircraft and helicopters carried by a Nimitz-class carrier. The new carrier is part of an ambitious expansion of the Chinese navy, which is projected to have a total of 265-273 warships, submarines and logistics vessels by 2020, according to the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Naval Analysis. That compares with 275 deployable battle force ships presently in the U.S. Navy, China's primary rival in the Asia Pacific. The U.S. operates 10 aircraft carriers, has 62 destroyers to China's 32, and 75 submarines to China's 68. The U.S. Navy has 323,000 personnel to China's 235,000. China has offered little information about the roles it expects its carriers to play, although its planning appears to be evolving as it gains more experience. The Liaoning was initially touted mainly as an experimental and training platform, but in December was declared to be combat-ready and has taken part in live-firing exercises in the South China Sea, where tensions have risen over China's construction of man-made islands complete with airstrips and military structures.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

In this photo released by China's Xinhua News Agency, a newly-built aircraft carrier is transferred from dry dock into the water at a launch ceremony at a shipyard in Dalian in northeastern China's Liaoning Province, Wednesday, April 26, 2017. China launched its first aircraft carrier built entirely on its own on Wednesday, in a demonstration of the growing technical sophistication of its defense industries and determination to safeguard its maritime territorial claims and crucial trade routes. (Li Gang/Xinhua via AP) BEIJING (AP) — China has launched its first aircraft carrier built entirely on its own, in a demonstration of the growing technical sophistication of its defense industries and determination to safeguard its maritime territorial claims and crucial trade routes. The 50,000-ton carrier was towed from its dockyard just after 9 a.m. Wednesday following a ceremony in the northern port city of Dalian, where its predecessor, the Soviet-built Liaoning, underwent extensive refurbishing before being commissioned in 2012, the Ministry of National Defense said. Development of the new carrier began in 2013 and construction in late 2015. It's expected to be formally commissioned sometime before 2020, after sea trials and the arrival of its full air complement. The carrier program is a key part of China's naval expansion at a time when it is looking to beef-up its regional military influence to match its economic might. While China says it maintains a defensive military policy, its ambitions are rattling some neighbors who see Beijing as fueling already enflamed tensions in the region. Chinese naval strategists see the carrier program not only as a means to protect their country's maritime interests, but also to have "naval power commensurate with China's international status, to impress both external and domestic audiences," said Michael Chase, an expert on the Chinese military at U.S. think tank the RAND Corporation. The new carrier "is likely to be seen as further evidence of China's desire to become the most powerful and influential country in the region," he said. That will be especially worrying to Indian security analysts who are already concerned about Beijing's ambitions in the Indian Ocean, he said. India, along with Japan and Taiwan which also view Chinese carriers as threats, will likely respond by building new submarines and anti-ship missiles, said Ian Easton, a research Fellow at The Project 2049 Institute in Arlington, Virginia. China's "expansionist behavior in the South China Sea and its aggressive efforts to undermine the security of Taiwan and Japan, in particular, have translated into a situation where few countries now trust that Beijing has benign motives," Easton said. Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Geng Shuang reiterated China's contention that it maintains a purely defense military posture and "sticks to the path of peaceful development. "The purpose to develop national defense forces including the navy is to safeguard our national sovereignty, security and development interests, as well as the peace of the world," Geng told reporters Wednesday at a daily news conference. China has offered little information about the roles it expects its carriers to play, although its planning appears to be evolving as it gains more experience. The Liaoning was initially touted mainly as an experimental and training platform, but in December was declared to be combat-ready and has taken part in live-firing exercises in the South China Sea, where tensions have risen over China's construction of man-made islands complete with airstrips and military structures. Earlier this year the Liaoning sailed through the Taiwan Strait, which was seen as a message to Taiwan, which China claims as its own territory to be brought under control by force if necessary. Wednesday's launch was presided over by the vice chairman of China's Central Military Commission and Communist Party Central Committee, Fan Changlong, and came just three days after the anniversary of the People's Liberation Army Navy's symbolic founding in 1949. Also attending was navy commander Vice Adm. Shen Jinlong, a former commander of the South Sea Fleet responsible for defending China's claim to virtually the entire South China Sea. Reports of the launch said a bottle of champagne was broken across the ship's bow and other craft in the port sounded their horns in celebration. Like the 60,000-ton Liaoning, which was purchased from the Ukraine, the new carrier is based on the Soviet Kuznetsov class design, with a ski jump-style deck for taking off and a conventional oil-fueled steam turbine power plant. That limits the weight of the payloads its planes can carry, its speed and the amount of time it can spend at sea relative to American nuclear-powered carriers. The main hull of the new carrier has been completed and its power supply put into place. Next up are mooring tests and the debugging of its electronic systems, the Defense Ministry said. China is believed to be planning to build at least two and possibly as many as four additional carriers, with one of them, the Type 002, reported to be already under construction at a shipyard outside Shanghai. They are expected to be closer in size to the U.S. Navy's nuclear-powered 100,000-ton Nimitz class ships, with flat flight decks and catapults to allow planes to launch with more bombs and fuel aboard. According to Chinese reports, the new, as yet unnamed, carrier will carry 24 Shenyang J-15 fighters, based on the Russian Sukhoi Su-33, along with 12 helicopters for anti-submarine warfare, airborne early warning and rescue operations. That compares to 85-90 fixed wing aircraft and helicopters carried by a Nimitz-class carrier. As China expands its navy, it is projected to have a total of 265-273 warships, submarines and logistics vessels by 2020, according to the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Naval Analysis. That compares with 275 deployable battle force ships presently in the U.S. Navy, China's primary rival in the Asia Pacific. The U.S. operates 10 aircraft carriers, has 62 destroyers to China's 32, and 75 submarines to China's 68. The U.S. Navy has 323,000 personnel to China's 235,000.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

In this photo released by China's Xinhua News Agency, a newly-built aircraft carrier is transferred from dry dock into the water at a launch ceremony at a shipyard in Dalian in northeastern China's Liaoning Province, Wednesday, April 26, 2017. China launched its first aircraft carrier built entirely on its own on Wednesday, in a demonstration of the growing technical sophistication of its defense industries and determination to safeguard its maritime territorial claims and crucial trade routes. (Li Gang/Xinhua via AP) BEIJING (AP) — China has launched its first aircraft carrier built entirely on its own, in a demonstration of the growing technical sophistication of its defense industries and determination to safeguard its maritime territorial claims and crucial trade routes. The 50,000-ton carrier was towed from its dockyard just after 9 a.m. Wednesday following a ceremony in the northern port city of Dalian, where its predecessor, the Soviet-built Liaoning, also underwent extensive refurbishing before being commissioned in 2012, the Ministry of National Defense said. Development of the new carrier began in 2013 and construction in late 2015. It's expected to be formally commissioned sometime before 2020, after sea trials and the arrival of its full air complement. Vice chairman of China's Central Military Commission and Communist Party Central Committee member Fan Changlong presided over the launch, which came just three days after the anniversary of the People's Liberation Army Navy's symbolic founding in 1949. Also attending was navy commander Vice Adm. Shen Jinlong, a former commander of the South Sea Fleet responsible for defending China's claim to virtually the entire South China Sea. Reports of the launch said a bottle of champagne was broken across the ship's bow and other craft in the port sounded their horns in celebration. Like the 60,000-ton Liaoning, which was purchased from the Ukraine, the new carrier is based on the Soviet Kuznetsov class design, with a ski jump-style deck for taking off and a conventional oil-fueled steam turbine power plant. That limits the weight of payloads its planes can carry, its speed and the amount of time it can spend at sea relative to American nuclear-powered carriers. The main hull of the new carrier has been completed and its power supply put into place. Next up are mooring tests and the debugging of its electronic systems, the Defense Ministry said. China is believed to be planning to build at least two and possibly as many as four additional carriers, with one of them, the Type 002, reported to be already under construction at a shipyard outside Shanghai. They are expected to be closer in size to the U.S. Navy's nuclear-powered 100,000-ton Nimitz class ships, with flat flight decks and catapults to allow planes to launch with more bombs and fuel aboard. Along with their role in protecting China's maritime interests, Chinese naval strategists see the carrier program as "about having naval power commensurate with China's international status, to impress both external and domestic audiences," said Michael Chase, an expert on the Chinese military at U.S. think tank the RAND Corporation. The new carrier "is likely to be seen as further evidence of China's desire to become the most powerful and influential country in the region," Chase said. That will be especially worrying to Indian security analysts who are already concerned about Beijing's ambitions in the Indian Ocean, he said. India, along with Japan and Taiwan which also view Chinese carriers as threats, will likely respond by building new submarines and anti-ship missiles, said Ian Easton, a research Fellow at The Project 2049 Institute in Arlington, Virginia. China's "expansionist behavior in the South China Sea and its aggressive efforts to undermine the security of Taiwan and Japan, in particular, have translated into a situation where few countries now trust that Beijing has benign motives," Easton said. China claims Taiwan as its own territory to be brought under control by force if necessary, and was seen as advertising that threat when it sailed the Liaoning through the Taiwan Strait earlier this year. According to Chinese reports, the new, as yet unnamed, carrier will carry 24 Shenyang J-15 fighters, based on the Russian Sukhoi Su-33, along with 12 helicopters for anti-submarine warfare, airborne early warning and rescue operations. That compares to 85-90 fixed wing aircraft and helicopters carried by a Nimitz-class carrier. The new carrier is part of an ambitious expansion of the Chinese navy, which is projected to have a total of 265-273 warships, submarines and logistics vessels by 2020, according to the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Naval Analysis. That compares with 275 deployable battle force ships presently in the U.S. Navy, China's primary rival in the Asia Pacific.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: hosted2.ap.org

(AP) — China launched its first aircraft carrier built entirely on its own on Wednesday, in a demonstration of the growing technical sophistication of its defense industries and determination to safeguard its maritime territorial claims and crucial trade routes. The 50,000-ton carrier left its berth just after 9 a.m. in the northern port city of Dalian, where its predecessor, the Ukrainian-built Liaoning, also underwent extensive refurbishing before being commissioned in 2012, the Ministry of National Defense said. The new carrier is expected to be formally commissioned sometime before 2020 following the completion of sea trials and the arrival of its full air complement. Like the 60,000-ton Liaoning, the new carrier is based on the former Soviet Union's Kuznetsov class design, with a ski jump-style deck for taking off and a conventional oil-fueled steam turbine power plant. That limits the weight of payloads its planes can carry, its speed and the amount of time it can spend at sea relative to American nuclear-powered carriers. China is believed to be planning to build at least two and possibly as many as four additional carriers, with one of them, the Type 002, reported to be already under construction at a shipyard outside Shanghai. They are expected to be closer in size to the U.S. Navy's nuclear-powered 100,000-ton Nimitz class ships, with flat flight decks and catapults to allow planes to launch with more bombs and fuel aboard. According to Chinese reports, the new carrier will carry 24 Shenyang J-15 fighters, based on the Russian Sukhoi Su-33, along with 12 helicopters for anti-submarine warfare, airborne early warning and rescue operations. That compares to 85-90 fixed wing aircraft and helicopters carried by a Nimitz-class carrier. The new carrier is part of an ambitious expansion of the Chinese navy, which is projected to have a total of 265-273 warships, submarines and logistics vessels by 2020, according to the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Naval Analysis. That compares with 275 deployable battle force ships presently in the U.S. Navy, China's primary rival in the Asia Pacific. The U.S. operates 10 aircraft carriers, has 62 destroyers to China's 32, and 75 submarines to China's 68. The U.S. Navy has 323,000 personnel to China's 235,000. China's navy has made strides in spreading its global reach since it established a permanent overseas presence by joining in multinational anti-piracy patrols off Somalia in 2008. It has cruised in the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf and helped evacuate Chinese and foreign nationals amid civil strife in Libya in 2011 and Yemen in 2015, the year it took part in its first Mediterranean joint naval exercises with Russia. China has offered little information about the roles it expects its carriers to play, although its planning appears to be evolving as it gains more experience. The Liaoning was initially touted mainly as an experimental and training platform, but in December was declared to be combat-ready and has taken part in live-firing exercises in the South China Sea, where tensions have risen over China's construction of man-made islands complete with airstrips and military structures. Building on that experience, the new carrier can be expected to take on an even more active role, cruising in the South China Sea, the East China Sea and possibly into the Western Pacific beyond the "first island chain" that blocks its access to open seas. Meanwhile, China's naval expansion is also fueling a reported push for a five-fold expansion of the marine corps to as many as 100,000 troops.


Pindzola M.S.,Auburn University | Colgan J.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Robicheaux F.,Purdue University | Lee T.G.,University Research Park | And 4 more authors.
Advances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Year: 2016

We review the application of the time-dependent close-coupling method to the study of ion-impact ionization of atoms and molecules. Ionization cross sections are presented for bare ion, antiproton, and neutron collisions with light atoms and molecules. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Amundson L.M.,Purdue University | Gallardo V.A.,Purdue University | Vinueza N.R.,Purdue University | Owen B.C.,Purdue University | And 8 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

A tandem mass spectrometric method using a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometer and another LQIT coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer is described for the identification and counting of different oxygen-containing functionalities and alkyl groups in unknown aromatic analytes. A total of 64 aromatic model compounds were evaporated and ionized via positive-mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Ionization of the model compounds primarily results in the formation of protonated molecules, [M + H] +. In some cases, the molecular radical cation, [M] +•, and/or a fragment ion, [M - H] +, are formed instead. Only in one case, no ions were observed near the m/z value of the molecular ion, and the ion with the greatest m/z value is a fragment ion, [M + H - H 2O] +. Once ionized, the ions were subjected to multiple isolation and collision-activated dissociation (CAD) events until no more fragmentation was observed (up to MS 5). In most cases, all functionalities were sequentially cleaved, one or more at a time, by the CAD events. The type of neutral molecule cleaved and the number of times that it was cleaved facilitate the identification and counting of the functionalities. The method was successfully used in concert with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC retention times offer further structural information for the analytes. This methodology benefits the chemical, pharmaceutical, and biofuels industries by facilitating the identification of previously unknown compounds directly in complex mixtures, such as crude products of chemical processes, drug metabolites, and lignin degradation products. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Habicht S.C.,Purdue University | Habicht S.C.,Center for Naval Analysis | Vinueza N.R.,Purdue University | Amundson L.M.,Purdue University | Kenttamaa H.I.,Purdue University
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

We report here a comparison of the use of diagnostic ion-molecule reactions for the identification of oxygen-containing functional groups in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) and linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometers. The ultimate goal of this research is to be able to identify functionalities in previously unknown analytes by using many different types of mass spectrometers. Previous work has focused on the reactions of various boron reagents with protonated oxygen-containing analytes in FTICR mass spectrometers. By using a LQIT modified to allow the introduction of neutral reagents into the helium buffer gas, this methodology has been successfully implemented to this type of an ion trap instrument. The products obtained from the reactions of trimethyl borate (TMB) with various protonated analytes are compared for the two instruments. Finally, the ability to integrate these reactions into LC-MS experiments on the LQIT is demonstrated. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry,2011.


Habicht S.C.,Purdue University | Habicht S.C.,Center for Naval Analysis | Amundson L.M.,Purdue University | Duan P.,Purdue University | And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

In recent years, laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer has been demonstrated to provide a valuable technique for the analysis of a wide variety of nonvolatile, thermally labile compounds, including analytes that could not previously be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Although FT-ICR instruments are very powerful, they are also large and expensive and, hence, mainly used as research instruments. In contrast, linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometers are common due to several qualities that make these instruments attractive for both academic and industrial settings, such as high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and experimental versatility. Further, the relatively small size of the instruments, comparatively low cost, and the lack of a magnetic field provide some distinct advantages over FT-ICR instruments. Hence, we have coupled the LIAD technique with a commercial LQIT, the Thermo Fischer Scientific LTQ mass spectrometer. The LQIT was modified for a LIAD probe by outfitting the removable back plate of the instrument with a 6 in. ConFlat flange (CFF) port, gate valve, and sample lock. Reagent ions were created using the LQIT's atmospheric pressure ionization source and trapped in the mass analyzer for up to 10 s to allow chemical ionization reactions with the neutral molecules desorbed via LIAD. These initial experiments focused on demonstrating the feasibility of performing LIAD in the LQIT. Hence, the results are compared to those obtained using an FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Despite the lower efficiency in the transfer of desorbed neutral molecules into the ion trap, and the smaller maximum number of available laser pulses, the intrinsically higher sensitivity of the LQIT resulted in a higher sensitivity relative to the FT-ICR. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Amundson L.M.,Purdue University | Owen B.C.,Purdue University | Gallardo V.A.,Purdue University | Habicht S.C.,Purdue University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

Positive-mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCIMS n) was tested for the differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids. Each analyte forms exclusively an abundant protonated molecule upon ionization via positive-mode APCI in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometer. Energy-resolved collision-activated dissociation (CAD) experiments carried out on the protonated analytes revealed fragmentation patterns that varied based on the location of the functional groups. Unambiguous differentiation between the regioisomers was achieved in each case by observing different fragmentation patterns, different relative abundances of ion-molecule reaction products, or different relative abundances of fragment ions formed at different collision energies. The mechanisms of some of the reactions were examined by H/D exchange reactions and molecular orbital calculations. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011.


Adamatzky A.,University of the West of England | Akl S.,Queen's University | Alonso-Sanz R.,Technical University of Madrid | Van Dessel W.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems | Year: 2013

We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorway networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of 14 geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, UK and USA. For each geographical entity, we represented major urban areas by oat flakes and inoculated the slime mould in a capital. After slime mould spanned all urban areas with a network of its protoplasmic tubes, we extracted a generalised Physarum graph from the network and compared the graphs with an abstract motorway graph using most common measures. The measures employed are the number of independent cycles, cohesion, shortest paths lengths, diameter, the Harary index and the Randić index. We obtained a series of intriguing results, and found that the slime mould approximates best of all the motorway graphs of Belgium, Canada and China, and that for all entities studied the best match between Physarum and motorway graphs is detected by the Randić index (molecular branching index). © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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