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Anuroopa N.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41 | Anuroopa N.,PRIST University | Anuroopa N.,Government Science College | Bagyaraj D.J.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41
Medicinal Plants | Year: 2015

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an important medicinal plant whose roots containing the alkaloid withanolide have been used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the cure of many ailments. A polyhouse study was conducted to screen and select the eff icient arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for inoculating W. somnifera. Screening was done with eleven different species of AM fungi viz. Acaulospora laevis, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus bagyarajii, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus intraradices, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum, Glomus monosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora calospora. Plants were raised in polybags containing sand soil mix inoculated with different AM fungi. Plant parameters like height, stem girth, biovolume index, biomass of shoot and root, NPK concentration, root withanolide concentration, and mycorrhizal parameters like root colonization, spore number in the root zone soil were determined following standard procedures. Based on the improved plant parameters, especially root biomass and withanolide concentration, it is concluded that Acaulospora laevis is the best AM fungus for inoculating W. somnifera, the next best being Glomus etunicatum. © 2015, IndianJournals.com. All rights reserved.


Thilagar G.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41 | Thilagar G.,PRIST University | Bagyaraj D.J.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41 | Raoca M.S.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

The goal of this study was to assess the possibility of reducing chemical fertilizer application through introduction of microbial inoculants for the cultivation of chilly. The microbial inoculants used were Funneliformis mosseae and Bacillus sonorensis as they revealed strong synergistic relationships and significant improvement of growth, yield and nutrition content of chilly under pot culture studies. Microplot experiment was conducted with selected microbial consortia with varying levels of chemical fertilizers in order to reduce the recommended level of chemical fertilizers for chilly cultivation. The results obtained from the microplot experiment suggested that inoculation with microbial consortia increased plant growth, dry weight of shoot, fruit yield and nutrient concentration. The results also brought out that 50% of recommended NPK fertilizer can be reduced through inoculation with microbial consortia with no adverse effect on growth, nutrition and yield of chilly. The large scale field trial conducted at farmer's field validated the results obtained in the microplot experiment. The soil enzyme activities and soil organic carbon were also more in microbial consortia +50% NPK treatment. Thus the results conclusively brought out that the application of chemical fertilizer to chilly crop can be reduced by 50% which in turn will improve soil health and reduce environmental pollution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..


Bagyaraj D.J.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41 | Thilagar G.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41 | Ravisha C.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41 | Kushalappa C.G.,University of Agricultural and Horticultural science | And 3 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2015

Soil microorganisms viz. bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi present in different typologies of coffee production systems were compared. In this study, two types of coffee plants, namely Arabica and Robusta, were grown under different agroforestry management such as coffee under one specialized shade species, multi-story coffee systems with 2 shade tree species, and coffee with 3 or more tree species under moist deciduous and evergreen ecological conditions. Samples were collected from 36 points to include different coffee ecosystems. The highest number of infective propagules of AM fungi was encountered in Arabica coffee under evergreen conditions. Population of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were higher under evergreen ecosystem compared to that of deciduous conditions. The population of nitrogen fixing bacteria was more than double in evergreen conditions compared to deciduous ecosystem. Number of lignin decomposing bacteria was higher in evergreen compared to deciduous conditions, but starch hydrolyzing bacteria and pectin-utilizing bacteria were more in deciduous ecosystem. Actinomycetes DAT2-1 isolated from deciduous ecosystem showed antagonistic activity against the root pathogen Fusarium chlamydosporum. It can be concluded that evergreen coffee system supports higher population of microorganisms. Of the two species of coffee, Arabica harboured more AM fungi, bacterial population, N fixers, P solubilizers and cellulose decomposing organisms while Robusta harboured higher number of fungi and actinomycetes. Of the three typologies, coffee grown under two shade tree species supported higher population of all microorganisms. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Thilagar G.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41 | Thilagar G.,Tamil University | Bagyaraj D.J.,Center for Natural Biological Resources and Community Development and 41
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are known to be supportive to crop plants through uptake of diffusion limited nutrients, biological control, hormone production and drought resistance, etc. It is important to screen and select the efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for each crop, because the same species may not be suitable for all the crops. Chilly is one of the major commercial crop of our country. Pot experiment was conducted to screen and select the efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for inoculating chilly. Screening was done with eleven different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Acaulospora laevis, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus bagyarajii, G. etunicatum, G. fasciculatum, G. intraradices, G. leptotichum, G. macrocarpum, G. monosporum, G. mosseae and Scutellospora calospora). Plant parameters like height, stem girth, bio-volume index, biomass of shoot and root, fruit yield and mycorrhizal parameters like root colonization, spore number in the root zone soil, etc. have been recorded according to the standard procedures. Based on the improved plant parameters like bio-volume index, plant biomass, fruit yield and phosphorus uptake it is concluded that Glomus mosseae is the best arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for inoculating chilly in the nursery. © 2013, The National Academy of Sciences, India.

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