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Neisiany R.E.,Isfahan University of Technology | Neisiany R.E.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Khorasani S.N.,Isfahan University of Technology | Kong Yoong Lee J.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | And 2 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

Dual components of a self-healing epoxy system comprising an epoxy resin and its amine based curing agent were encapsulated in a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) shell via a coaxial electrospinning technique. The morphological study showed the electrospun core-shell nanofibers were smooth, continuous, and without beads, with average diameters measured to be 483 nm and 406 nm for encapsulated epoxy and amine nanofibers, respectively. Investigations into the nanofiber's chemical structure showed the successful encapsulation of the epoxy resin and amine curing agent in the PAN shell, retaining the chemical characteristics of the encapsulated components. The thermal characterization of the nanofibers reinforced these findings, showing a 24 wt% and 37 wt% availability of the epoxy resin and amine curing agent contained within the PAN nanofibers, respectively. In addition, DSC results showed that this system holds great promise for self-healing epoxy resins in composite applications, particularly because of its spontaneous room temperature curing characteristics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Venugopal J.R.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Ramakrishna S.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2015

Two-dimensional scaffolds, three-dimensional scaffolds, and dermal substitutes are extensively used for biomedical applications in skin tissue regeneration. Not much explored synthetic polymers, like poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PLACL), natural polymers, like silk fibroin (SF), and active inducing agents, such as ascorbic acid (AA) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH), represent a favorable matrix for fabricating dermal substitutes to engineer artificial skin for wound repair. The profligate nature of residing skin cells near the wound site is a paramount to survival and also regulating stem cells and other cellular networks and mechanical forces. PLACL/SF/TCH/AA nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized for fiber morphology, membrane porosity, wettability, and significant subchains using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for culturing human-derived dermal fibroblasts. The PLACL, PLACL/SF, PLACL/SF/TCH, and PLACL/SF/TCH/AA scaffolds obtained diameters between 250 and 340 nm. The secretion of collagen by the laboratory-grown fibroblasts over the AA-blended scaffolds was found to be significantly higher compared with that of other scaffolds. The obtained results positively prove that introduction of naturally secreting compounds (AA) by the cells into the nanofibrous scaffolds will favor cell's microenvironment and eventually leads to complete tissue regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Krishnan R.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Krishnan R.,National University of Singapore | Rajeswari R.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Rajeswari R.,National University of Singapore | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2012

Tissue engineering and nanotechnology have advanced a general strategy combining the cellular elements of living tissue with sophisticated functional biocomposites to produce living structures of sufficient size and function at a low cost for clinical relevance. Xylan, a natural polysaccharide was electrospun along with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to produce Xylan/PVA nanofibers for skin tissue engineering. The Xylan/PVA glutaraldehyde (Glu) vapor cross-linked nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and water contact angle measurements to analyze the morphology, functional groups, mechanical properties and wettability of the fibers for skin tissue regeneration. The cell-biomaterial interactions were studied by culturing human foreskin fibroblasts on Xylan/ PVA Glu vapor cross-linked and Xylan/PVA/Glu blend nanofibrous scaffolds. The observed results showed that the mechanical properties (72 %) and fibroblast proliferation significantly increased up to 23 % (P < 0.05) in 48 h Glu vapor cross-linked nanofibers compared to 24 h Glu vapor cross-linked Xylan/PVA nanofibers. The present study may prove that the natural biodegradable Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for fibroblast adhesion, proliferation and cell matrix interactions relevant for skin tissue regeneration. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Prabhakaran M.P.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Mobarakeh L.G.,Isfahan University of Technology | Kai D.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Karbalaie K.,Royan Institute for Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2014

The potential of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolated from the inner mass of blastocysts are investigated for its ability to differentiate on biocompatible electrospun nanofibers, for regeneration of the myocardially infracted heart. Nanostructured poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)/collagen (PLGA/Col) scaffolds with fiber diameters in the range of 300 ± 65 nm, was fabricated by electrospinning to mimic the extracellular matrix of the native tissue. During the culture of embryoid bodies outgrowth on the scaffolds, and further differentiation of ESCs to cardiomyocytes, the PLGA/Col nanofibers was found better than that of the electrospun PLGA nanofibers, where a better interaction and growth of ESC differentiated cardiomyocytes was observed on the composite scaffolds. The phenotypical characteristics of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes and molecular protein expression were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Our studies highlight the significance of a suitable material, its architecture, and cell-biomaterial interactions that is essential at a nanoscale level signifying the application of a bioengineered cardiac graft for stem cell differentiation and transplantation, which could be an intriguing strategy for cardiac regeneration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kouhi M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Kouhi M.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Prabhakaran M.P.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Shamanian M.,Isfahan University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Composites Science and Technology | Year: 2015

In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA), bredigite (BR) and hydroxyapatite/bredigite (HABR) (50/50) nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) or PHBV nanofibers containing different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15%) of HA or BR or HABR nanoparticles were prepared by electrospinning process. Physiochemical properties of the prepared nanofibers were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Evaluation of their mechanical properties showed that the addition of 10% of any one of the above mentioned nanoparticles to PHBV produced composite nanofibers with regard to their tensile strength and Young's modulus. PHBV containing either 10% HA or 10% HABR showed higher mechanical strength and Young's modulus than the PHBV fibers incorporated with 10% BR. At the same time, studies on the ability of bone formation of the nanofibers in simulated body fluid (SBF) confirmed higher bone-like apatite formation on PHBV fibers containing either 10% HABR or BR compared to the HA composite. We concluded that the 10% HABR incorporated PHBV nanofibers possess optimized mechanical properties with high ability for apatite formation, thus potentially suitable as a novel substrate for bone regeneration application compared to the most commonly studied HA composite fibers. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Gandhimathi C.,Nanyang Technological University | Venugopal J.R.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Bhaarathy V.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Ramakrishna S.,Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology | Kumar S.D.,Nanyang Technological University
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2014

Nanotechnology and tissue engineering have enabled engineering of nanostructured strategies to meet the current challenges in skin tissue regeneration. Electrospinning technology creates porous nanofibrous scaffolds to mimic extracellular matrix of the native tissues. The present study was performed to gain some insights into the applications of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PLACL)/silk fibroin (SF)/vitamin E (VE)/curcumin (Cur) nanofibrous scaffolds and to assess their potential for being used as substrates for the culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. PLACL/SF/VE/Cur nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized by fiber morphology, membrane porosity, wettability, mechanical strength, and chemical properties by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on these scaffolds, and the cell scaffold interactions were analyzed by cell proliferation, cell morphology, secretion of collagen, expression of F-actin, and 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) dye. The electrospun nanofiber diameter was obtained between 198±4 nm and 332±13 nm for PLACL, PLACL/SF, PLACL/ SF/VE, and PLACL/SF/VE/Cur nanofibrous scaffolds. FTIR analysis showed the presence of the amide groups I, II, and III, and a porosity of up to 92% obtained on these nanofibrous scaffolds. The results showed that the fibroblast proliferation, cell morphology, F-actin, CMFDA dye expression, and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in PLACL/SF/VE/Cur when compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The accessibility of human dermal fibroblasts cultured on PLACL/SF/VE/Cur nanofibrous scaffolds proved to be a potential scaffold for skin tissue regeneration. ©2014 Gandhimathi et al.


PubMed | Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials | Year: 2014

The potential of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolated from the inner mass of blastocysts are investigated for its ability to differentiate on biocompatible electrospun nanofibers, for regeneration of the myocardially infracted heart. Nanostructured poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)/collagen (PLGA/Col) scaffolds with fiber diameters in the range of 30065 nm, was fabricated by electrospinning to mimic the extracellular matrix of the native tissue. During the culture of embryoid bodies outgrowth on the scaffolds, and further differentiation of ESCs to cardiomyocytes, the PLGA/Col nanofibers was found better than that of the electrospun PLGA nanofibers, where a better interaction and growth of ESC differentiated cardiomyocytes was observed on the composite scaffolds. The phenotypical characteristics of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes and molecular protein expression were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Our studies highlight the significance of a suitable material, its architecture, and cell-biomaterial interactions that is essential at a nanoscale level signifying the application of a bioengineered cardiac graft for stem cell differentiation and transplantation, which could be an intriguing strategy for cardiac regeneration.

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