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Khan M.B.,Center for Molecular Chaperone Radiobiology and Cancer Virology | Lee B.R.,Center for Molecular Chaperone Radiobiology and Cancer Virology | Kamitani T.,Center for Molecular Chaperone Radiobiology and Cancer Virology
Histochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The medulla of the adrenal gland is a neuroendocrine tissue in which catecholamine-storing chromaffin cells exist. The chromaffin cells are derived from neural crest cells and distinctly differentiated into two types of cells, epinephrine (E) (adrenaline)-storing and norepinephrine (NE) (noradrenaline)-storing cells. Using histochemical or immunostaining methods, the two types of chromaffin cells have been differentially distinguished. However, difficulties and/or drawbacks of the procedures have somewhat restricted the progress of research in differential functions of E-storing and NE-storing cells. Here, we show a new method for the differential demonstration of these two cell types. We found that mouse and rat adrenomedullary cells are heterogeneously stained with Harris hematoxylin after treatment with citrate buffer at pH 6. The cell clusters stained with hematoxylin were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase, which is an enzyme involved in catecholamine biosynthesis. Furthermore, the cell clusters were negative for phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase, which is an enzyme responsible for the conversion from NE to E and expresses in E-storing chromaffin cells. Moreover, we found that the cell clusters stained with hematoxylin can also be stained with nitroblue tetrazolium at pH 11, using Hopsu and Mäkinen's method by which NE-storing chromaffin cells are stained. These observations indicate that the cytoplasm of NE-storing chromaffin cells is specifically stained with hematoxylin after treatment with citrate buffer at pH 6. This method will allow us to facilitate cell-type specific research of chromaffin cells. Indeed, this method revealed that α-synuclein selectively expresses in E-storing chromaffin cells, but not in NE-storing chromaffin cells. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Jin X.,University of Georgia | Jin X.,Center for Molecular Chaperone Radiobiology and Cancer Virology | Eroglu B.,University of Georgia | Eroglu B.,Center for Molecular Chaperone Radiobiology and Cancer Virology | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Studies suggest that Hsf4 expression correlates with its role in cell growth and differentiation. However, the role of Hsf4 in tumorigenesis in vivo remains unexplored. In this article, we provide evidence that absence of the Hsf4 gene suppresses evolution of spontaneous tumors arising in p53- or Arf-deficient mice. Furthermore, deletion of hsf4 alters the tumor spectrum by significantly inhibiting development of lymphomas that are normally observed in the majority of mice lacking p53 or Arf tumor suppressor genes. Using mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient in the hsf4 gene, we have found that these cells exhibit reduced proliferation that is associated with induction of senescence and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal). Cellular senescence in hsf4-deficient cells is associated with the increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27 proteins. Consistent with the cellular senescence observed in vitro, specific normal tissues of hsf4 -/- mice and tumors that arose in mice deficient in both hsf4 and p53 genes exhibit increased SA-β-gal activity and elevated levels of p27 compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that hsf4 deletion-induced senescence is also present in vivo. Our results therefore indicate that Hsf4 is involved in modulation of cellular senescence, which can be exploited during cancer therapy. ©2012 AACR.

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