Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology

Shreveport, LA, United States

Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology

Shreveport, LA, United States
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Martinez N.E.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Sato F.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Omura S.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Minagar A.,LSU Health | And 2 more authors.
Pathophysiology | Year: 2013

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease which can presents in different clinical courses. The most common form of MS is the relapsing-remitting (RR) course, which in many cases evolves into secondary progressive (SP) disease. Autoimmune models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have been developed to represent the various clinical forms of MS. These models along with clinico-pathological evidence obtained from MS patients have allowed us to propose '1-stage' and '2-stage' disease theories to explain the transition in the clinical course of MS from RR to SP. Relapses in MS are associated with pro-inflammatory T helper (Th) 1/Th17 immune responses, while remissions are associated with anti-inflammatory Th2/regulatory T (Treg) immune responses. Based on the '1-stage disease' theory, the transition from RR to SP disease occurs when the inflammatory immune response overwhelms the anti-inflammatory immune response. The '2-stage disease' theory proposes that the transition from RR to SP-MS occurs when the Th2 response or some other responses overwhelm the inflammatory response resulting in the sustained production of anti-myelin antibodies, which cause continuing demyelination, neurodegeneration, and axonal loss. The Theiler's virus model is also a 2-stage disease, where axonal degeneration precedes demyelination during the first stage, followed by inflammatory demyelination during the second stage. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Chan G.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Chan G.,SUNY Upstate Medical University | Nogalski M.T.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Stevenson E.V.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2012

HCMV pathogenesis is a direct consequence of the hematogenous dissemination of the virus to multiple host organ sites. The presence of infected monocytes in the peripheral blood and organs of individuals exhibiting primary HCMV infection have long suggested that these blood sentinels are responsible for mediating viral spread. Despite monocytes being "at the right place at the right time", their short lifespan and the lack of productive viral infection in these cells complicate this scenario of a monocyte-driven approach to viral dissemination by HCMV. However, our laboratory has provided evidence that HCMV infection is able to induce a highly controlled polarization of monocytes toward a unique and long-lived proinflammatory macrophage, which we have demonstrated to be permissive for viral replication. These observations suggest that HCMV has evolved as a distinct mechanism to induce select proinflammatory characteristics that provide infected monocytes with the necessary tools to mediate viral spread following a primary infection. In the absence of viral gene products during the early stages of infection, the process by which HCMV "tunes" the inflammatory response in infected monocytes to promote viral spread and subsequently, viral persistence remains unclear. In this current review, we focus on the viral entry process of HCMV and the potential role of receptor-ligand interactions in modulating monocyte biology. Specifically, we examine the signaling pathways initiated by the distinct combination of cellular receptors simultaneously engaged and activated by HCMV during viral entry and how the acquisition of this distinct signalsome results in a nontraditional activation of monocytes leading to the induction of the unique, functional attributes observed in monocytes following HCMV infection. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.


DiGiuseppe S.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Keiffer T.R.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Bienkowska-Haba M.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Luszczek W.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2015

The human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is composed of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid protein L2. During entry, the HPV capsid undergoes numerous conformational changes that result in endosomal uptake and subsequent trafficking of the L2 protein in complex with the viral DNA to the trans-Golgi network. To facilitate this transport, the L2 protein harbors a number of putative motifs that, if capable of direct interaction, would interact with cytosolic host cell factors. These data imply that a portion of L2 becomes cytosolic during infection. Using a low concentration of digitonin to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane of infected cells, we mapped the topography of the L2 protein during infection. We observed that epitopes within amino acid residues 64 to 81 and 163 to 170 and a C-terminal tag of HPV16 L2 are exposed on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, whereas an epitope within residues 20 to 38, which are upstream of a putative transmembrane region, is luminal. Corroborating these findings, we also found that L2 protein is sensitive to trypsin digestion during infection. These data demonstrate that the majority of the L2 protein becomes accessible on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes in order to interact with cytosolic factors to facilitate vesicular trafficking.


Richards K.F.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Mukherjee S.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Bienkowska-Haba M.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Pang J.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Sapp M.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology
Viruses | Year: 2014

Using a cell culture model where virus is bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM) prior to cell surface binding, we determined that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) utilizes ECM resident laminin (LN) 332 as an attachment receptor for infectious entry. In presence of LN332, soluble heparin can function as ligand activator rather than competitive inhibitor of HPV16 infection. We also show that the ability to use LN332 binding as a productive attachment step for infectious entry is not conserved amongst HPV types. In the alpha genus, species 9 members (HPV16) attach to ECM via LN332, while members of species 7 (HPV18) are completely inhibited by heparin pre-incubation due to an inability to use LN332. Since HPV species 7 and 9 are preferentially associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, respectively, our data provide first evidence that pre-entry events may contribute to the anatomical-site preference of HPV species. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


DiGiuseppe S.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Bienkowska-Haba M.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology | Sapp M.,Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology
Journal of Virology | Year: 2016

Incoming human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize vesicular transport to traffic from the plasma membrane to the trans-Golgi network. Following nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis, the viral DNA associates with condensed chromosomes utilizing spindle microtubules for delivery. Most intriguingly, the viral DNA resides in a transport vesicle until mitosis is completed and the nuclear envelope has reformed. This finding provides support for the transient existence of nuclear membrane-bound vesicles. Due to their transient nature, it also points to the existence of a cell pathway for the disposal of vesicles ending up fortuitously or purposefully in the nucleus. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology
Type: | Journal: Virology | Year: 2014

The Human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is composed of the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. Infectious entry requires a complex series of conformational changes in both proteins that lead to uptake and allow uncoating to occur. During entry, the capsid is disassembled and host cyclophilins dissociate L1 protein from the L2/DNA complex. Herein, we describe a mutant HPV16 L2 protein (HPV16 L2-R302/5A) that traffics pseudogenome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but fails to egress. Our data provide further evidence that HPV16 traffics through the TGN and demonstrates that L2 is essential for TGN egress. Furthermore, we show that cyclophilin activity is required for the L2/DNA complex to be transported to the TGN which is accompanied by a reduced L1 protein levels.


PubMed | Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2016

Incoming human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize vesicular transport to traffic from the plasma membrane to the trans-Golgi network. Following nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis, the viral DNA associates with condensed chromosomes utilizing spindle microtubules for delivery. Most intriguingly, the viral DNA resides in a transport vesicle until mitosis is completed and the nuclear envelope has reformed. This finding provides support for the transient existence of nuclear membrane-bound vesicles. Due to their transient nature, it also points to the existence of a cell pathway for the disposal of vesicles ending up fortuitously or purposefully in the nucleus.


PubMed | German Cancer Research Center and Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2015

The human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is composed of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid protein L2. During entry, the HPV capsid undergoes numerous conformational changes that result in endosomal uptake and subsequent trafficking of the L2 protein in complex with the viral DNA to the trans-Golgi network. To facilitate this transport, the L2 protein harbors a number of putative motifs that, if capable of direct interaction, would interact with cytosolic host cell factors. These data imply that a portion of L2 becomes cytosolic during infection. Using a low concentration of digitonin to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane of infected cells, we mapped the topography of the L2 protein during infection. We observed that epitopes within amino acid residues 64 to 81 and 163 to 170 and a C-terminal tag of HPV16 L2 are exposed on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, whereas an epitope within residues 20 to 38, which are upstream of a putative transmembrane region, is luminal. Corroborating these findings, we also found that L2 protein is sensitive to trypsin digestion during infection. These data demonstrate that the majority of the L2 protein becomes accessible on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes in order to interact with cytosolic factors to facilitate vesicular trafficking.In order to complete infectious entry, nonenveloped viruses have to pass cellular membranes. This is often achieved through the viral capsid protein associating with or integrating into intracellular membrane. Here, we determine the topography of HPV L2 protein in the endocytic vesicular compartment, suggesting that L2 becomes a transmembrane protein with a short luminal portion and with the majority facing the cytosolic side for interaction with host cell transport factors.


PubMed | Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology | Year: 2013

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease which can presents in different clinical courses. The most common form of MS is the relapsing-remitting (RR) course, which in many cases evolves into secondary progressive (SP) disease. Autoimmune models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have been developed to represent the various clinical forms of MS. These models along with clinico-pathological evidence obtained from MS patients have allowed us to propose 1-stage and 2-stage disease theories to explain the transition in the clinical course of MS from RR to SP. Relapses in MS are associated with pro-inflammatory T helper (Th) 1/Th17 immune responses, while remissions are associated with anti-inflammatory Th2/regulatory T (Treg) immune responses. Based on the 1-stage disease theory, the transition from RR to SP disease occurs when the inflammatory immune response overwhelms the anti-inflammatory immune response. The 2-stage disease theory proposes that the transition from RR to SP-MS occurs when the Th2 response or some other responses overwhelm the inflammatory response resulting in the sustained production of anti-myelin antibodies, which cause continuing demyelination, neurodegeneration, and axonal loss. The Theilers virus model is also a 2-stage disease, where axonal degeneration precedes demyelination during the first stage, followed by inflammatory demyelination during the second stage.


PubMed | Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Viruses | Year: 2014

Using a cell culture model where virus is bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM) prior to cell surface binding, we determined that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) utilizes ECM resident laminin (LN) 332 as an attachment receptor for infectious entry. In presence of LN332, soluble heparin can function as ligand activator rather than competitive inhibitor of HPV16 infection. We also show that the ability to use LN332 binding as a productive attachment step for infectious entry is not conserved amongst HPV types. In the alpha genus, species 9 members (HPV16) attach to ECM via LN332, while members of species 7 (HPV18) are completely inhibited by heparin pre-incubation due to an inability to use LN332. Since HPV species 7 and 9 are preferentially associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, respectively, our data provide first evidence that pre-entry events may contribute to the anatomical-site preference of HPV species.

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