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Helsinki, Finland

Kuikka P.-I.,Center for Military Medicine | Pihlajamaki H.K.,Center for Military Medicine | Mattila V.M.,Center for Military Medicine | Mattila V.M.,University of Tampere
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports

The population-based incidence and risk factors for knee injuries in young adults were assessed in Finnish male conscripts performing their compulsory military service (n=128584). The main outcome variables were (1) hospitalization due to knee injuries overall and (2) hospitalization due to knee disorders as categorized into specific International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision diagnoses (cruciate and collateral ligament tears, meniscal tears, traumatic chondral lesions, and patellar dislocations). Person-time injury-incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of persons with a diagnosed knee injury by the total exposure time of 97503 person-years. The number of subjects with surgical operations and military service class changes indicative of longer term notable disability are also reported. Risk factor analyses were performed by logistic regression. The person-based incidence of hospitalizations for knee injury was 11 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.4-11.7]. The most important risk factors were higher age (odds ratio 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2) and obesity (odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI: 1.03-2.5). Two thirds of all subjects hospitalized for knee injuries had surgery, and one third had longer term notable disability. These findings indicate that knee injuries cause a significant burden of hospitalizations, often leading to surgery and longer term disability. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Panula J.,City Hospital of Pori | Pihlajamaki H.,Center for Military Medicine | Mattila V.M.,University of Tampere | Jaatinen P.,Rauma Health Office | And 4 more authors.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

Background: The high mortality of hip fracture patients is well documented, but sex- and cause-specific mortality after hip fracture has not been extensively studied. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate mortality and cause of death in patients after hip fracture surgery and to compare their mortality and cause of death to those in the general population. Methods. Records of 428 consecutive hip fracture patients were collected on a population-basis and data on the general population comprising all Finns 65 years of age or older were collected on a cohort-basis. Cause of death was classified as follows: malignant neoplasms, dementia, circulatory disease, respiratory disease, digestive system disease, and other. Results: Mean follow-up was 3.7 years (range 0-9 years). Overall 1-year postoperative mortality was 27.3% and mortality after hip fracture at the end of the follow-up was 79.0%. During the follow-up, age-adjusted mortality after hip fracture surgery was higher in men than in women with hazard ratio (HR) 1.55 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-2.00. Among hip surgery patients, the most common causes of death were circulatory diseases, followed by dementia and Alzheimer's disease. After hip fracture, men were more likely than women to die from respiratory disease, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory disease. During the follow-up, all-cause age- and sex-standardized mortality after hip fracture was 3-fold higher than that of the general population and included every cause-of-death category. Conclusion: During the study period, the risk of mortality in hip fracture patients was 3-fold higher than that in the general population and included every major cause of death. © 2011 Panula et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Pihlajamaki H.K.,Center for Military Medicine | Salminen S.T.,University of Helsinki | Tynninen O.,University of Helsinki | Bostman O.M.,University of Helsinki | Laitinen O.,University of Helsinki
Calcified Tissue International

We performed qualitative and histoquantitative investigations of tissue restoration after implanting polyglycolide (PGA), polydioxanone (PDS), polylevolactide (PLLA), and stainless steel pins in the intramedullary canal of rabbit femurs. The effect of bioabsorbable devices on healing of a cortical bone defect was also assessed. The cortical bone defect was created in the right femur of 80 rabbits. Bioabsorbable and metallic pins in 60 and two metallic pins alone were implanted in 20 intramedullary canals; 80 left femurs served as intact controls. Follow-up times were 3, 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. At all time points, collagenous connective tissue, including bone trabeculae, surrounded the implant at the tissue-implant interface, replacing hematopoiesis and fat of the intramedullary canal. The groups did not differ in the area and trabecular bone area fraction of the resulting callus. Residual fragments of PGA and PDS were observed at 24 weeks, and complete degradation occurred within 52 weeks. PGA, PDS, PLLA, and metallic implants induced a bony and fibrous walling-off response in the intramedullary cavity. No inflammation was observed. Complete tissue restoration did not occur within the follow-up, even after complete degradation of PGA and PDS, which had shorter degradation times than PLLA. The cortical bone healing effect was not different between bioabsorbable pins and metallic wires. Thus, these polymers had no specific osteostimulatory or osteoinhibitory properties compared to stainless steel. Within the follow-up period, there were no significant differences in biocompatibility between the implants and no adverse inflammatory foreign-body reactions. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Laukkala T.,Field Medicine Services Unit | Ranta S.,Datawell Ltd. | Ranta S.,University of Helsinki | Wennervirta J.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder, a common psychiatric disorder in the general population, may follow a traumatic experience of awareness with recall during general anesthesia. METHODS: We conducted a matched cohort design with 9 subjects after intraoperative awareness with recall during general anesthesia. A psychiatric diagnostic interview and questionnaire were performed on 9 matched controls and 9 subjects, a median of 17.2 years from their documented awareness episode. The subjects and the matched controls completed a battery of questionnaires related to psychosocial well-being, after which they participated in a diagnostic Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders. RESULTS: Patients with awareness did not seem to differ from their matched controls in subsequent psychosocial outcome, psychiatric morbidity, or quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: We found no indication that intraoperative awareness with recall had any deleterious long-term effects on patients' psychosocial outcome. Copyright © 2014 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source

Pesonen A.-K.,University of Helsinki | Eriksson J.G.,University of Helsinki | Eriksson J.G.,Folkhalsan Research Center | Heinonen K.,University of Helsinki | And 9 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging

We examined the effects of early life stress on cognitive ability and decline among men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 10% of whom were separated temporarily (mean age at separation = 4.1 years) from their parent(s) during World War II. The men underwent the Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test twice, at 20 years and retest at 70 years. Compared with the men without childhood separation and matched for year of birth (n = 186), men separated from their parents (n = 93) scored lower by 5.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.2 to -1.7), 4.2 (95% CI, -8.1 to -0.3), 3.1 (95% CI, -7.0 to 0.8), and 4.5 (95% CI, -10.5 to -1.4) standardized points (SD = 15) on verbal, visuospatial, arithmetic, and general cognitive ability, respectively, at 70 years. Longer duration of separation was associated with lower test scores. Though early life stress was also associated significantly with weaker cognitive performance at the ages 20 and 70 years, it was not associated with cognitive decline over the 50-year period within this sample. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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