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Jennings J.,University of Nottingham | Beija M.,University of Nottingham | Richez A.P.,University of Nottingham | Cooper S.D.,University of Nottingham | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society

We present a one-pot synthesis for well-defined nanostructured polymeric microparticles formed from block copolymers that could easily be adapted to commercial scale. We have utilized reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to prepare block copolymers in a dispersion polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide, an efficient process which uses no additional solvents and hence is environmentally acceptable. We demonstrate that a wide range of monomer types, including methacrylates, acrylamides, and styrenics, can be utilized leading to block copolymer materials that are amphiphilic (e.g., poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)) and/or mechanically diverse (e.g., poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(N,N- dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)). Interrogation of the internal structure of the microparticles reveals an array of nanoscale morphologies, including multilayered, curved cylindrical, and spherical domains. Surprisingly, control can also be exerted by changing the chemical nature of the constituent blocks and it is clear that selective CO 2 sorption must strongly influence the block copolymer phase behavior, resulting in kinetically trapped morphologies that are different from those conventionally observed for block copolymer thin films formed in absence of CO 2. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Chaudhary N.,University of Queensland | Gomez G.A.,University of Queensland | Howes M.T.,University of Queensland | Lo H.P.,University of Queensland | And 9 more authors.
PLoS Biology

Several studies have suggested crosstalk between different clathrin-independent endocytic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms and functional relevance of these interactions are unclear. Caveolins and cavins are crucial components of caveolae, specialized microdomains that also constitute an endocytic route. Here we show that specific caveolar proteins are independently acting negative regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis. Cavin-1 and Cavin-3, but not Cavin-2 or Cavin-4, are potent inhibitors of the clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-AP enriched early endosomal compartment (CLIC/GEEC) endocytic pathway, in a process independent of caveola formation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) and CAV3 also inhibit the CLIC/GEEC pathway upon over-expression. Expression of caveolar protein leads to reduction in formation of early CLIC/GEEC carriers, as detected by quantitative electron microscopy analysis. Furthermore, the CLIC/GEEC pathway is upregulated in cells lacking CAV1/Cavin-1 or with reduced expression of Cavin-1 and Cavin-3. Inhibition by caveolins can be mimicked by the isolated caveolin scaffolding domain and is associated with perturbed diffusion of lipid microdomain components, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies. In the absence of cavins (and caveolae) CAV1 is itself endocytosed preferentially through the CLIC/GEEC pathway, but the pathway loses polarization and sorting attributes with consequences for membrane dynamics and endocytic polarization in migrating cells and adult muscle tissue. We also found that noncaveolar Cavin-1 can act as a modulator for the activity of the key regulator of the CLIC/GEEC pathway, Cdc42. This work provides new insights into the regulation of noncaveolar clathrin-independent endocytosis by specific caveolar proteins, illustrating multiple levels of crosstalk between these pathways. We show for the first time a role for specific cavins in regulating the CLIC/GEEC pathway, provide a new tool to study this pathway, identify caveola-independent functions of the cavins and propose a novel mechanism for inhibition of the CLIC/GEEC pathway by caveolin. © 2014 Chaudhary et al. Source

Bennett T.M.,University of Queensland | Pei K.,University of Queensland | Cheng H.-H.,Center for Advanced Imaging | Cheng H.-H.,Australian National Fabrication Facility | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS

Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a promising approach for extending conventional lithographic techniques by being able to print features with critical dimensions under 10 nm. The most widely studied block copolymer system is polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). This system is well understood in terms of its synthesis, properties, and performance in DSA. However, PS-b-PMMA also has a number of limitations that impact on its performance and hence scope of application. The primary limitation is the low Flory-Huggins polymer-polymer interaction parameter (χ), which limits the size of features that can be printed. Another issue with block copolymers in general is that specific molecular weights need to be synthesized to achieve desired morphologies and feature sizes. Here we explore blending ionic liquid (IL) additives with PS-b-PMMA to increase the ÷ parameter. ILs have a number of useful properties that include negligible vapor pressure, tunable solvent strength, thermal stability, and chemical stability. The blends of PS-b-PMMA with an IL selective for the PMMA block allowed the resolution of the block copolymer to be improved. Depending on the amount of additive, it is also possible to tune the domain size and the morphology of the systems. These findings may expand the scope of PS-b-PMMA for DSA. © 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Source

Sinha B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Koster D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Ruez R.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gonnord P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 16 more authors.

The functions of caveolae, the characteristic plasma membrane invaginations, remain debated. Their abundance in cells experiencing mechanical stress led us to investigate their role in membrane-mediated mechanical response. Acute mechanical stress induced by osmotic swelling or by uniaxial stretching results in a rapid disappearance of caveolae, in a reduced caveolin/Cavin1 interaction, and in an increase of free caveolins at the plasma membrane. Tether-pulling force measurements in cells and in plasma membrane spheres demonstrate that caveola flattening and disassembly is the primary actin- and ATP-independent cell response that buffers membrane tension surges during mechanical stress. Conversely, stress release leads to complete caveola reassembly in an actin- and ATP-dependent process. The absence of a functional caveola reservoir in myotubes from muscular dystrophic patients enhanced membrane fragility under mechanical stress. Our findings support a new role for caveolae as a physiological membrane reservoir that quickly accommodates sudden and acute mechanical stresses. PaperFlick: © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Alejandro Fernandez-Rojo M.,University of Queensland | Alejandro Fernandez-Rojo M.,Center for Microscopy and Microanalysis | Restall C.,Peter llum Cancer Center | Ferguson C.,University of Queensland | And 18 more authors.

Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a structural protein of caveolae involved in lipid homeostasis and endocytosis. Using newly generated pure Balb/C CAV1 null (Balb/CCAV1-/-) mice, CAV1-/- mice from Jackson Laboratories (JAXCAV1-/-), and CAV1-/- mice developed in the Kurzchalia Laboratory (KCAV1-/-), we show that under physiological conditions CAV1 expression in mouse tissues is necessary to guarantee an efficient progression of liver regeneration and mouse survival after partial hepatectomy. Absence of CAV1 in mouse tissues is compensated by the development of a carbohydrate-dependent anabolic adaptation. These results were supported by extracellular flux analysis of cellular glycolytic metabolism in CAV1-knockdown AML12 hepatocytes, suggesting cell autonomous effects of CAV1 loss in hepatic glycolysis. Unlike in KCAV1-/- livers, in JAXCAV1-/- livers CAV1 deficiency is compensated by activation of anabolic metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway and lipogenesis) allowing liver regeneration. Administration of 2-deoxy-glucose in JAXCAV1-/- mice indicated that liver regeneration in JAXCAV1-/- mice is strictly dependent on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, with the exception of regenerating JAXCAV1-/- livers, expression of CAV1 in mice is required for efficient hepatic lipid storage during fasting, liver regeneration, and diet-induced steatosis in the three CAV1-/- mouse strains. Furthermore, under these conditions CAV1 accumulates in the lipid droplet fraction in wildtype mouse hepatocytes. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that lack of CAV1 alters hepatocyte energy metabolism homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source

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