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Lekamwasam S.,Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases
Archives of osteoporosis | Year: 2013

There is a wide variation in fracture probabilities estimated by Asian FRAX models, although the outputs of South Asian models are concordant. Clinicians can choose either fixed or age-specific intervention thresholds when making treatment decisions in postmenopausal women. Cost-effectiveness of such approach, however, needs to be addressed. This study examined suitable fracture probability intervention thresholds (ITs) for Sri Lanka, based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model. Fracture probabilities were estimated using all Asian FRAX models for a postmenopausal woman of BMI 25 kg/m2 and has no clinical risk factors apart from a fragility fracture, and they were compared. Age-specific ITs were estimated based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model using the method followed by the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group in the UK. Using the age-specific ITs as the reference standard, suitable fixed ITs were also estimated. Fracture probabilities estimated by different Asian FRAX models varied widely. Japanese and Taiwan models showed higher fracture probabilities while Chinese, Philippine, and Indonesian models gave lower fracture probabilities. Output of remaining FRAX models were generally similar. Age-specific ITs of major osteoporotic fracture probabilities (MOFP) based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model varied from 2.6 to 18% between 50 and 90 years. ITs of hip fracture probabilities (HFP) varied from 0.4 to 6.5% between 50 and 90 years. In finding fixed ITs, MOFP of 11% and HFP of 3.5% gave the lowest misclassification and highest agreement. Sri Lankan FRAX model behaves similar to other Asian FRAX models such as Indian, Singapore-Indian, Thai, and South Korean. Clinicians may use either the fixed or age-specific ITs in making therapeutic decisions in postmenopausal women. The economical aspects of such decisions, however, need to be considered. Source


Liyanage A.,Dermatology Unit | Lekamwasam S.,Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases | Dissanayake S.P.,Karapitiya | Munidasa D.,Karapitiya
Lupus | Year: 2013

Studies on body composition and its determinants among SLE patients are limited. Estimation of body composition, analysis of determinants and associations of different body compartments are important in planning long-term care of these patients. The aim of the study was to identify the changes in body composition among SLE patients and assess the effect of corticosteroid use, patient and disease-related variables on body composition. We compared lean mass, fat mass, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology, in a group of premenopausal women with SLE (n = 27) and an age-matched healthy group of women (n = 27). The median (IQR) duration of SLE was 3 (2-5) years while median (IQR) duration and dose of prednisolone therapy were 108 (88-172) weeks and 9730 (6160-15360) mg, respectively. No significant difference was observed in body mass index (BMI) or total fat mass between the two groups. SLE patients, however, had significantly lower lean mass (p < 0.001), BMD (p < 0.001) and BMC (p < 0.005) than healthy controls. Among cases, compared with lean mass, total body fat content showed stronger associations with total body BMD (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and total body BMC (r = 0.63, p < 0.01). When a stepwise regression model was fitted, lean mass among controls and total fat mass among cases emerged as the best predictors of BMC/BMD. No significant correlations were found between the disease duration or cumulative glucocorticosteroid dose and total body BMD, total body BMC, lean mass or total fat content in SLE patients. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav. Source


Van Remoortel H.,University Hospitals Leuven | Hornikx M.,University Hospitals Leuven | Langer D.,University Hospitals Leuven | Burtin C.,University Hospitals Leuven | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rationale: There is little information about comorbidities and their risk factors in the preclinical stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of premorbid risk factors and comorbid diseases and its association with daily physical activity in subjects detected with COPD by spirometry screening. Methods: Sixty subjects with preclinical COPD (63 ± 6yr; 68% [n = 41] male) were compared with 60 smoking control subjects (62 ± 7 yr; 70% [n = 42] male) and 60 never-smoking control subjects (62 ± 6yr; 57% [n = 34] male). Comorbidities (cardiovascular, metabolic, and musculoskeletal disease) and daily physical activity (by multisensor activity monitor) were measured objectively. Measurements and Main Results: The prevalence of premorbid risk factors and comorbid diseases was significantly higher in preclinical COPD compared with age-matched never-smoking control subjects, but was similar to smoking control subjects not suffering from COPD. In preclinical COPD and smoking control subjects, the combination of cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disease was the most prevalent (15% [n = 9] and 12% [n = 7], respectively). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, physical inactivity and smoking were found to be independent risk factors for having greater than or equal to two comorbidities. Conclusions: Premorbid risk factors and comorbid diseases were more prevalent in the preclinical stages of COPD and smokers without COPD. Physical inactivity and smoking were more strongly associated with the presence of comorbidities compared with airflow obstruction. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01314807). Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source


Lekamwasam S.,Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases
Journal of Clinical Densitometry | Year: 2010

The FRAX software developed by the World Health Organization provides a method to estimate fracture probability of old men and women based on their bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors (CRFs). The validity of 4 selected ethnic-specific FRAX tools in determining prevalent fracture or treatment decisions in a group of postmenopausal women from Sri Lanka was examined. Women with a history of fragility fracture/s and those who were detected to have femoral neck T-score < 2.5 were considered eligible for specific osteoporosis treatment. Ten-year all osteoporotic fracture (vertebral and nonvertebral) probability (10y-AOFP) of 481 postmenopausal women were estimated on US Caucasian, US Asian, Japanese, and Chinese FRAX tools, first using CRFs alone and then combining with femoral neck T-scores. At 20% 10y-AOFP, Chinese tool showed a very low sensitivity in detecting prevalent fracture or detecting women needing intervention (1.3%). Sensitivities observed with US Asian and Japanese tools ranged from 33% to 42%, showing their limitations in predicting prevalent fracture in this group of women. The US Caucasian tool, either with CRFs alone or with BMD incorporated, showed a relatively higher sensitivity in detecting fractures or identifying those needing interventions (71% and 76%, respectively). Furthermore, the US Caucasian tool showed a relatively high specificity (ranging from 70% to 87%). In conclusion, this analysis showed the limitations of the current FRAX tools in predicting fractures when applied to a different ethnic group. Until a separate FRAX tool is developed, the US Caucasian tool can be used to predict fractures in Sri Lankan postmenopausal women. © 2010 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Source


Lekamwasam S.,Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases
Archives of Osteoporosis | Year: 2013

There is a wide variation in fracture probabilities estimated by Asian FRAX models, although the outputs of South Asian models are concordant. Clinicians can choose either fixed or age-specific intervention thresholds when making treatment decisions in postmenopausal women. Cost-effectiveness of such approach, however, needs to be addressed. Purpose: This study examined suitable fracture probability intervention thresholds (ITs) for Sri Lanka, based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model. Methods: Fracture probabilities were estimated using all Asian FRAX models for a postmenopausal woman of BMI 25 kg/m2 and has no clinical risk factors apart from a fragility fracture, and they were compared. Age-specific ITs were estimated based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model using the method followed by the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group in the UK. Using the age-specific ITs as the reference standard, suitable fixed ITs were also estimated. Results: Fracture probabilities estimated by different Asian FRAX models varied widely. Japanese and Taiwan models showed higher fracture probabilities while Chinese, Philippine, and Indonesian models gave lower fracture probabilities. Output of remaining FRAX models were generally similar. Age-specific ITs of major osteoporotic fracture probabilities (MOFP) based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model varied from 2.6 to 18 % between 50 and 90 years. ITs of hip fracture probabilities (HFP) varied from 0.4 to 6.5 % between 50 and 90 years. In finding fixed ITs, MOFP of 11 % and HFP of 3.5 % gave the lowest misclassification and highest agreement. Conclusion: Sri Lankan FRAX model behaves similar to other Asian FRAX models such as Indian, Singapore-Indian, Thai, and South Korean. Clinicians may use either the fixed or age-specific ITs in making therapeutic decisions in postmenopausal women. The economical aspects of such decisions, however, need to be considered. © 2013 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Source

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