Center for Medicinal Plants Research

Kottakkal, India

Center for Medicinal Plants Research

Kottakkal, India
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Sreedhar S.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Kumar U.P.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Shree A.B.R.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research
Pharmacognosy Journal | Year: 2012

Traditional knowledge and ethno-botanical use of plants have been widely acknowledged all over the world. Certain tribal people of Chinnar, Idukki District of Kerala are using stem bark of Combretum albidum G.Don as an effective remedy for jaundice. The documentation of traditional knowledge from Chinnar area reveal that it is highly effective. So the validation and standardisation of stem bark of C. albidum was carried out to establish its macro- and microscopical standards, physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical investigation and TLC profiles to evaluate the characters of the plant. The stem bark is usually hard with longitudinal cracks, around 0.5 to 1 cm in thickness, internally bright yellow in colour, odourless and slightly bitter in taste. Detailed anatomy showed the presence of cork, cortex and secondary phloem embedded with elongated lignified phloem fibres. Histochemical studies revealed the presence of lignin, tannin, oil and starch grains. Physicochemical parameters like moisture content, total ash, alcohol and watersoluble extractive values were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis indicated a high percentage of tannins, flavonoids and triterpenes and this may be one of the reasons behind the hepatoprotective activity of this plant. Well resolved TLC profiles were recorded in sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The above parameters, which are being reported for the first time in this plant, are significant towards establishing the pharmacognostic standards for future identification and authentication of genuine plant material used for Jaundice by Chinnar tribals of Kerala.


John B.,Bharathiyar University | Sulaiman C.T.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | George S.,CMS College | Reddy V.R.K.,Bharathiyar University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the total content of phenolics and flavonoids in selected medicinal plants such as Atuna indica, Baliospermum montanum, Chukrasia tabularis, Humboldtia brunonis var. rakthapushpa and Soymida febrifuga. Methods: The total phenolic content (TPC) was estimated spectrophotometrically using Folin Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content (TFC) was measured by aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. Results: The results showed that Chukrasia tabularis (belonging to the family Meliaceae) is the richest source of phenolics and flavonoid (total Phenolic content: 17.2 mg GAE/g and total flavonoid content: 3.82 QE/g). The lowest phenolic content was noticed in Baliospermum montanum (2.72 mg GAE/g) and lowest flavonoid content was observed in Humboldtia brunoniss var. raktapushpa (0.98 mg QE/g). Conclusion: A significant linear correlation was observed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The high contents of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity. The Chukrasia tabularis can be regarded as promising plant species for natural plant sources of antioxidants with high potential value for drug preparation.


Sreedhar S.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Prakash Kumar U.,Kancor Ingredients Ltd | Girija T.P.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Remashree A.B.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research
Pharmacognosy Journal | Year: 2013

Objective: To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don, a medicinally important liana. Materials and methods: Macro- and microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations of leaves were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC profiles were carried out for qualitative phytochemical evaluation of various extracts of leaves of C. albidum. Results: Macro, micro, powder and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of leaf were examined and recorded the result. Physico-chemical parameters like moisture content (11.02 ± 0.05) % w/w, total ash (13.79 ± 0.05) % w/w and respectively acid insoluble ash (0.48 ± 0.01) % w/w extractive and values of alcohol (13.42 ± 0.01) % w/w and water (20.28 ± 0.02) % w/w and sequential extractive values of sample in petroleum ether (5.14%), ethyl acetate (4.55%) and methanol (11.48%) were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, glycosides and saponins. A well resolved HPTLC profiles was recorded in sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 18 compounds such as caryophyllene (21.58%), linalool (10.69%), β-phellandrene (8.74%) and phytol (7.02%) were the other major compounds present. Conclusions: The above parameters, which are being reported for the first time, are significant towards establishing the pharmacognostic standards for future identification and authentication of genuine plant material. Copyright © 2013, Phcog.Net.


John B.,Bharathiyar University | Sulaiman C.T.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | George S.,St. Joseph's College | Reddy V.R.K.,Bharathiyar University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the total alkaloid content in selected Justicia species such as J. adhatoda, J. beddomei, J. betonica, J. gendarussa, J. montana and J. wynaadensis Methods: The total alkaloid content (TAC) was estimated spectrophotometrically using Bromocresol green method with caffeine as standard. Results: The results showed that various parts like root, stem and leaf of the selected species are rich source of alkaloids. The leaf extract of J. beddomi showed highest alkaloid content (28.53) and root of J. wayanadansis showed least alkaloid content (8.45). Among the various parts analyses leaf extracts exhibited higher alkaloids. Conclusion: The total alkaloid content of various species of Justicia with respect to the different parts was well established by spectrophotometric studies. The comparative estimation of total alkaloid in the selected species was done for the first time which can be used for further chemical and biological studies in these species.


Balan A.P.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Predeep S.V.,R.Ø.S.A.
Taiwania | Year: 2017

The genus Smithia in South India is revised based on field and herbarium studies. A brief history of the genus along with a key to the identification of the South Indian species, updated nomenclature, detailed descriptions, illustrations, photo plates and notes on distribution, phenology and ecology are provided for each species. Status of S. conferta var. geminiflora is reinstated. Four names are lectotypified, namely, Smithia bodinierii, S. conferta var. geminiflora, S. venkobarowii and S. yunnanensis. © 2017, College of Life Science. All rights reserved.


Sreedhar S.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Prakash Kumar U.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Rema Shree A.B.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research | Year: 2013

Traditional knowledge and ethno-botanical use of plants have been widely acknowledged all over the world. The tribes of Chinnar, Idukki District of Kerala are being using Combretum albidum G.Don as an effective remedy for jaundice, though they are aware about the use of Phyllanthus species against jaundice. So the validation and pharmacognostic standardisation of heart wood of C. albidum were carried out to establish its macro- and microscopical standards, physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical investigation and TLC profiles to evaluate the characters of the plant. The dried pieced of heart wood usually very hard, around 1 to 2 cm in thickness, bright yellow in colour, odourless and slightly bitter in taste. Detailed anatomy showed xylem region consists of vessels, xylem parenchyma loaded with starch grains, crystal fibers and medullary rays. Histochemical studies revealed the presence of lignin, tannin and starch grains. Physicochemical parameters like moisture content (7.82%), total ash (4.32%), acid insoluble ash (0.06%), extractive values of alcohol (6.56%) and water (7.51%) and sequential extractive values of sample in petroleum ether (0.64%), ethyl acetate (1.85%) and methanol (6.91%) were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis indicated a high percentage of tannins, flavonoids and triterpenes. Well resolved TLC profiles were recorded in sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The above parameters, which are being reported for the first time in this plant, are significant towards establishing the pharmacognostic standards for future identification and authentication of genuine plant material.


Sulaiman C.T.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Balachandran I.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.


Kumar U.P.,Bharathiar University | Sreedhar S.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Purushothaman E.,University of Calicut
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research | Year: 2015

The liana Combretum albidum G. Don is an extensive woody climber occupying the canopy of host tree, belonging to the family combretaceae and its distribution is restricted in semi evergreen and deciduous forests, along river banks of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Phytochemical exploration of a heartwood extract from Combretum albidum afforded five triterpenoids namely ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, arjunolic acid and betulin. The heart wood of the plant also yields beta sitosterol, gallic acid and ellagic acid as other constituents. The compounds oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, arjunolic acid, betulin and ellagic acid were isolated and reported for the first time from this plant. The compounds ursolic acid, beta sitosterol and gallic acid isolated were characterized for the first time from this plant using spectroscopic methods. The structures of all compounds were confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic and available literature data. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.


Sulaiman C.T.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Balachandran I.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research
Natural Product Research | Year: 2016

Characterisation of antioxidant fraction of the fruit of Garcinia gummi-gutta was done using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopic (LC/MS) analyses. Total poly phenolics and radical scavenging activity of various extracts such as acetone, methanol and hydroalcohol were estimated spectrophotometrically. The active extract was analysed by LC/MS in order to identify the molecular mass and tentative structures of major compounds. Phenolic compounds such as luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-O-(6-O-acetyl) glycoside, dicaffeoylquinic acid, apigenein-6-C-pentosyl-8-C-hexoside and p-coumarylquinic acid were identified from hydro alcoholic extract of G. gummi-gutta. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Sulaiman C.T.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research | Balachandran I.,Center for Medicinal Plants Research
Spectroscopy Letters | Year: 2015

Amruthotharam kashayam is an important Ayurvedic formulation prepared using specified plant parts of Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula, and Zingiber officinale. The current study developed a rapid liquid chromatographic method coupled with electro spray ionization mass spectrometry for the identification of major phytoconstituents present in the formulation. Reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatogram was developed as chemical fingerprint. The mass spectrum along with the MS/MS fragmentation on collision-induced dissociation led to the structural identification of separated compounds. Phenolic acids such as quinic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, and chebulic acid were identified in the formulation along with some flavonoids. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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