Jabalpur, India
Jabalpur, India

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Gradl D.R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Sun L.,Illinois Institute of Technology | Larkin E.L.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Larkin E.L.,Center for Medical Mycology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2015

The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3-to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to ± h with an additional 2-to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P < 0.001). Survival appeared related to the rate of reduction in the aw. The aw also influenced Salmonella survival during storage of ground ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.

Keller S.E.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Stam C.N.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Gradl D.R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Chen Z.,Illinois Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2015

The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35°C at low (<30% relative humidity [RH]) and high (>90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25°C with low RH > 35°C with low RH > 25°C with high RH > 35°C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25°C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35°C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55°C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25°C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process. © 2015, International Association for Food Protection. All rights reserved.

Bedi N.G.,Rani Durgavati University | Bedi N.G.,Amity University | Nawange S.R.,Rani Durgavati University | Nawange S.R.,Center for Medical Mycology | And 4 more authors.
Journal de Mycologie Medicale | Year: 2012

This study presents a two-year retrospective analysis of the work done during 2003-2005 on the distribution population density and isolation frequency of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii recovered from different parts of Eucalyptus tree spp., at Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Of the 1000 samples collected from bark, flowers, fruits, buds and leaves of Eucalyptus trees E. terreticornis and E. camaldulensis, 32 (3.2%) were found to be positive for C.n var. grubii and 28 (2.8%) for C. gattii respectively. While both the pathogens were isolated through all the seasons, no significant difference was found in prevalence of the two species (P>0.05) from different Eucalyptus tree samples. For C. neoformans var. grubii the highest isolation frequency of the pathogen was in spring followed by autumn, summer, winter and rainy season. For C. gattii, highest isolation frequency of the pathogen was in summer, followed by autumn, spring, winter and rainy season. Significant difference was seen in the isolation frequency of C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii during autumn and rainy season (P<0.01), spring and rainy season (P<0.001) and summer and rainy season (P<0.001). Population density and isolation frequency of the both pathogens were significantly lower in rainy season. Bark of the Eucalyptus tree yielded the highest frequency of C. neoformans var. grubii followed by flower, fruits, buds and debris. Trees located in the densely populated area of the city yielded highest frequency of the pathogens followed by trees located in sparsely populated area on the outskirt of the city and areas near the river Narmada. Further comprehensive study is suggested to assess the overall impact of seasonal prevalence in the isolation frequency and population density of both the pathogens and their clinical significance across climatically divergent region of India. © 2012.

News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The deadly fungus, Candida auris, which has been found in hospitals, is resistant to entire classes of antimicrobial drugs, limiting treatment options for those infected. First reported in 2009, the fungus has been linked to invasive infections in nine countries, including the United States, and has caused at least two hospital outbreaks involving more than 30 patients each. Now, in a first-of-its-kind study published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, microbiologists at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have provided previously uninvestigated details pertaining to C. auris drug resistance and growth patterns. Based on specimens collected from around the globe, the comprehensive study also provides evidence that a new investigational drug (SCY-078) may help to cure these infections. "This emerging fungal species has started to infect patients globally, causing invasive infections that are associated with a high death rate," said Mahmoud Ghannoum, PhD, MBA, FIDSA, Professor and Director of the Center for Medical Mycology in the Department of Dermatology at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center. "It is multidrug-resistant, and some strains isolated from patients are resistant to all commercially available antifungal drugs. Multidrug-resistance used to be reported for bacteria only, and now we must add fungi to the list." Ghannoum led the investigation of 16 strains of C. auris collected from infected patients in Germany, Japan, Korea, and India. The researchers tested the isolates against a battery of 11 drugs, belonging to different classes of antifungals, to identify drug concentrations that could combat infection. While most samples proved at least partially resistant to drugs tested, low concentrations of an investigational drug (SCY-078) "severely distorted" the fungus and impaired its growth, providing an important step towards the development of this drug to treat C. auris infections. Fungi exposed to the drug could not divide, suggesting it could halt infections or limit their spread. Ghannoum's study is the first to provide details related to the effects of the investigational drug on C. auris. The fungus lurks on catheters in intensive care units, where it forms highly drug-resistant communities, or biofilms. Ghannoum's team exposed fungi in the laboratory to silicone surfaces mimicking catheters. Under high-powered microscopes, they found C. auris formed relatively thin biofilms that weakened when exposed to the investigational drug. The findings were strain-dependent, but suggest applicability for the new drug to combat catheter-associated infections in particular. Previous studies have shown the drug is effective against other Candida species that cause catheter-associated infections, including C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Said Ghannoum, "This drug is especially promising because of its broad anti-Candida activity, including activity against drug-susceptible and resistant strains." The study is also the first to report C. auris does not germinate and produce spores like other fungi, a surprise given its ability to rapidly spread in hospitals. The researchers also discovered only certain strains produce destructive enzymes that commonly help fungi establish infections in body tissue. Despite these apparent weaknesses, the fungus is able to maintain extreme drug-resistance and infect patients. According to the paper, the "multidrug-resistant phenotype of C. auris comes with a major fitness cost." Ghannoum's research provides a foundation for clinical trials to further study the investigational drug and informs doctors desperate for new ways to treat infections caused by C. auris. Said Ghannoum, "Understanding the virulence of C. auris and showing that the investigational drug is effective may lead to the development of new medications to combat this emerging health threat." The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is actively tracking C. auris infections. Said Ghannoum, "Eradication of Candida auris from hospitals is very difficult and in some cases has led to closing hospital wards." People staying in hospitals for extended periods of time are most at risk. Laboratory workers who identify the species in a patient sample are encouraged to contact state or local public health authorities, or candidaauris@cdc.gov. This research was supported in part by Scynexis Inc.; the National Institutes of Health (R01DE024228 to M.A.G. and P.K.M.); and the Swagelok Center for Surface Analysis of Materials, Skin Diseases Research Center (NIAMS P30 AR03970), and Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy Core of the Genetics Department at Case Western Reserve University. For more information about Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, please visit: http://case. .

Nawange S.R.,Rani Durgavati University | Nawange S.R.,Center for Medical Mycology | Singh S.M.,Rani Durgavati University | Naidu J.,Government Science College | And 5 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2012

Zygomycosis encompasses infections due to two distinct orders of fungi, Mucorales and Entomophthorales. With rare exception, Entomophthorales are restricted to tropical areas. By contrast, mucorales are ubiquitous opportunistic fungi, which play a crucial part in the natural decay process. In human pathology, they may be opportunistic agents and be responsible for rare infection called (Mucormycosis) zygomycosis. We report two cases of zygomycosis from Madhya Pradesh, Central India, one caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a diabetic patient and another caused by Rhizopus microsporus in an apparently healthy patient. The cases were diagnosed by direct microscopy, histopathological examination and culture. Both the patients were successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Rhizopus microsporus is, for the first time reported from Madhya Pradesh, India, causing rhino-maxillary orbital zygomycosis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Nawange S.R.,Center for Medical Mycology | Nawange S.R.,Rani Durgavati University | Aglawe V.,P.A. College | Yadu R.,Center for Medical Mycology | And 9 more authors.
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2013

We report two cases of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Curvularia verruculosa and subsequent purification and characterization of proteinase produced by it and establishes its significance in pathogenesis. C. verruculosa was isolated repeatedly from subcutaneous lesion and blood of a 7-year-old male child and in another instance from the blood of a 55-year old diabetic male with cellulitis on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) medium with 0.5mg/mL chloramphenicol. An exocellular proteinase produced by C. verruculosa in a glucose-peptone broth was purified from lyophilized and dialysed culture filtrate of the fungus by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified enzyme was a homogenous protein that could hydrolyse bovine serum albumin and hemoglobin. The enzyme showed neutral pH optimum and maximum activity at 40°C temperature after 60m of incubation. Enzyme was totally inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2. As the strain of C. verruculosa was isolated from peripheral blood of patients with diabetes and cellulitis, it is concluded that this fungus must be producing natural metalloproteinase in-vivo also, that could utilize hemoglobin and serum albumin as protein source for its nutritional requirement in the blood thus surviving and causing infection in such patients. © Global Science Publications.

Ghannoum M.A.,Case Western Reserve University | Ghannoum M.A.,Center for Medical Mycology | Mukherjee P.K.,Case Western Reserve University
Current Fungal Infection Reports | Year: 2013

Until recently, the human microbiome was synonymous with the bacterial community. Fortunately, recent studies have shown that the human microbiome is complex and composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Characterizing the fungal community "mycobiome" in health (involving oral cavity, skin, and gastrointestinal tract body sites) is paving the way to defining the changes that this community undergoes in disease. Although the number of studies investigating the mycobiome in disease is small, findings from these investigations are exciting and beginning to show that fungi, apart from their role as normal flora or direct pathogens, may aggravate disease symptoms in specific patient populations (e.g., inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis). Such unexpected findings provide impetus for the conduct of research aimed at elucidating the role of the fungal community, and its interactions with other microbial communities, in immunocompromised diseases. Funding of these research efforts is warranted. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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