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Brookline, MA, United States

Boardman A.K.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Campbell J.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Wirz H.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Sharon A.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Appropriate care for bacteremic patients is dictated by the amount of time needed for an accurate diagnosis. However, the concentration of microbes in the blood is extremely low in these patients (1-100 CFU/mL), traditionally requiring growth (blood culture) or amplification (e.g ., PCR) for detection. Current culture-based methods can take a minimum of two days, while faster methods like PCR require a sample free of inhibitors (i.e., blood components). Though commercial kits exist for the removal of blood from these samples, they typically capture only DNA, thereby necessitating the use of blood culture for antimicrobial testing. Here, we report a novel, scaled-up sample preparation protocol carried out in a new microbial concentration device. The process can efficiently lyse 10 mL of bacteremic blood while maintaining the microorganisms' viability, giving a 30-μL final output volume. A suite of six microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli , Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans) at a range of clinically relevant concentrations was tested. All of the microorganisms had recoveries greater than 55% at the highest tested concentration of 100 CFU/mL, with three of them having over 70% recovery. At the lowest tested concentration of 3 CFU/mL, two microorganisms had recoveries of ca . 40-50% while the other four gave recoveries greater than 70%. Using a Taqman assay for methicillin-sensitive S . aureus (MSSA)to prove the feasibility of downstream analysis, we show that our microbial pellets are clean enough for PCR amplification. PCR testing of 56 spiked-positive and negative samples gave a specificity of 0.97 and a sensitivity of 0.96, showing that our sample preparation protocol holds great promise for the rapid diagnosis of bacteremia directly from a primary sample. © 2015 Boardman et al. Source

Boardman A.K.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Allison S.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Sharon A.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Sharon A.,Boston University | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2013

To accurately diagnose microbial infections in blood, it is essential to recover as many microorganisms from a sample as possible. Unfortunately, recovery of such microorganisms depends significantly on their adhesion to the surfaces of diagnostic devices. Consequently, we sought to minimize the adhesion of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) to the surface of polypropylene- and acrylic-based bacteria concentration devices. These devices were treated with 11 different coatings having various charges and hydrophobicities. Some coatings promoted bacterial adhesion under centrifugation, whereas others were more likely to prevent it. Experiments were run using a simple buffer system and lysed blood, both inoculated with MSSA. Under both conditions, Hydromer's 7-TS-13 and Aqua 65JL were most effective in reducing bacterial adhesion. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Campbell J.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | McGuinness I.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Wirz H.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Sharon A.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine | Year: 2015

We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting system capable of multimaterial and multiscale deposition to enable the next generation of "bottom-up" tissue engineering. This area of research resides at the interface of engineering and life sciences. As such, it entails the design and implementation of diverse elements: a novel hydrogelbased bioink, a 3D bioprinter, automation software, and mammalian cell culture. Our bioprinter has three components uniquely combined into a comprehensive tool: syringe pumps connected to a selector valve that allow precise application of up to five different materials with varying viscosities and chemistries, a high velocity/high-precision x-y-z stage to accommodate the most rapid speeds allowable by the printed materials, and temperature control of the bioink reservoirs, lines, and printing environment. Our customdesigned bioprinter is able to print multiple materials (or multiple cell types in the same material) concurrently with various feature sizes (100 μm-1 mm wide; 100 μm-1 cm high). One of these materials is a biocompatible, printable bioink that has been used to test for cell survival within the hydrogel following printing. Hand-printed (HP) controls show that our bioprinter does not adversely affect the viability of the printed cells. Here, we report the design and build of the 3D bioprinter, the optimization of the bioink, and the stability and viability of our printed constructs. © 2015 by ASME. Source

Campbell J.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Pollock N.R.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Sharon A.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Sharon A.,Boston University | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2015

We present a lab-on-a-chip and associated instrument for heterogeneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based detection of proteins from liquid samples. The system performs all necessary ELISA steps (starting from antigen incubation) in a quarter of the time required for corresponding plate-based protocols. We have previously described the instrument, which automates fluidic control via remote valve switching and detects fluorescence from reacted substrate, for use in a molecular diagnostics application. The ELISA chip reported here utilizes a high surface area bead bed to enhance capture efficiency and increase the dynamic range of the assay as compared to a standard plate-based ELISA. Its functionality is demonstrated using human IL-10 as a model antigen, but theoretically any sandwich ELISA could be ported onto this "open source platform." We show that our automated on-chip assays have greater sensitivities than the corresponding standard manual plate-based ELISAs, and that single samples can be assayed in a fraction of the time. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Kalashnikov M.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | Lee J.C.,Harvard University | Campbell J.,Boston University | Sharon A.,Center for Manufacturing Innovation | And 3 more authors.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2012

The emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to ever increasing classes of antibiotics intensifies the need for fast phenotype-based clinical tests for determining antibiotic susceptibility. Standard susceptibility testing relies on the passive observation of bacterial growth inhibition in the presence of antibiotics. In this paper, we present a novel microfluidic platform for antibiotic susceptibility testing based on stress-activation of biosynthetic pathways that are the primary targets of antibiotics. We chose Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as a model system due to its clinical importance, and we selected bacterial cell wall biosynthesis as the primary target of both stress and antibiotic. Enzymatic and mechanical stresses were used to damage the bacterial cell wall, and a β-lactam antibiotic interfered with the repair process, resulting in rapid cell death of strains that harbor no resistance mechanism. In contrast, resistant bacteria remained viable under the assay conditions. Bacteria, covalently-bound to the bottom of the microfluidic channel, were subjected to mechanical shear stress created by flowing culture media through the microfluidic channel and to enzymatic stress with sub-inhibitory concentrations of the bactericidal agent lysostaphin. Bacterial cell death was monitored via fluorescence using the Sytox Green dead cell stain, and rates of killing were measured for the bacterial samples in the presence and absence of oxacillin. Using model susceptible (Sanger 476) and resistant (MW2) S. aureus strains, a metric was established to separate susceptible and resistant staphylococci based on normalized fluorescence values after 60 min of exposure to stress and antibiotic. Because this ground-breaking approach is not based on standard methodology, it circumvents the need for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements and long wait times. We demonstrate the successful development of a rapid microfluidic-based and stress-activated antibiotic susceptibility test by correctly designating the phenotypes of 16 additional clinically relevant S. aureus strains in a blinded study. In addition to future clinical utility, this method has great potential for studying the effects of various stresses on bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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