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Lu Z.-C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu W.-X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.-H.,Center for Management of Invasive Alien Species
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organism's temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3′ and 5′ rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35°C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change. © 2014 Lu et al. Source

Lu Z.-C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Y.-M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhu S.-G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yu H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Insect Science | Year: 2014

The invasive Mediterranean Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has emerged as one of the most common agricultural pests in the world. In the present study, we examined the cross-tolerance, fitness costs, and benefits of thermal tolerance and the variation in the responses of life history traits after heat-shock selection. The results showed that survival and longevity of Mediterranean B. tabaci were decreased significantly after direct or cross temperature stress and that the number of eggs per female was not reduced significantly. Furthermore, heat-shock selection dramatically increased the survival of Mediterranean B. tabaci within two generations, and it did not significantly affect the egg number per female within five generations. These results indicated that there was a trade-off between survival, longevity, and reproduction in Mediterranean B. tabaci after temperature stress. The improvement in reproduction was costly in terms of decreased survival and longevity, and there was a fitness consequence to temperature stress. In addition, heat tolerance in Mediterranean B. tabaci increased substantially after selection by heat shock, indicating a considerable variation for survival tolerance in this species. This information could help us better understand the thermal biology of Mediterranean B. tabaci within the context of climate change. © Copyright: This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed. Source

Lu Z.-C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.-H.,Center for Management of Invasive Alien Species
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2011

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B, is one of the most destructive invasive pests of field and glasshouse crops, and has a high tolerance to heat. Our previous work found that whitefly females are more heat tolerant than males. In the present study, real-time PCR and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) methods were used to explore the role of heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in whitefly of both sexes; this provided further evidence of the mechanism underlying the differential heat tolerance abilities of females and males. The results showed that both hsp23 and hsp70 mRNA expression levels were higher in females than in males from 37.5 to 42°C, while at the extreme temperature of 44°C the hsp70 mRNA level was higher in males than in females. There was no significant difference in hsp90 mRNA expression between females and males under heat shock conditions. Furthermore, the survival rate of females fed hsp23 or hsp70 dsRNA significantly decreased following heat shock at 44°C for 1 h, but male survival rate was not significantly affected. Additionally, the survival rate of both females and males showed no significant change after they were fed with hsp90 dsRNA. Collectively, the present study shows that the optimum mRNA expression of Hsp genes in females promotes a higher survival rate under heat shock conditions; hsp23 and hsp70 play a key role for heat tolerance in females but not in males, and hsp90 shows no significant role in heat tolerance in either females or males. Further, our study indicates that feeding with dsRNA is an effective method by which to study gene function, and the simplicity of this approach opens the way for further research on gene function in different sexes and diverse groups of species. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Ma F.-Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu Z.-C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang R.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.-H.,Center for Management of Invasive Alien Species
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

With advancing global climate change, the analysis of thermal tolerance and evolutionary potential is important in explaining the ecological adaptation and changes in the distribution of invasive species. To reveal the variation of heat resistance and evolutionary potential in the invasive Mediterranean cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci, we selected two Chinese populations - one from Harbin, N China, and one from Turpan, S China - that experience substantial heat and cold stress and conducted knockdown tests under static high- and low-temperature conditions. ANOVAs indicated significant effects of populations and sex on heat knockdown time and chill coma recovery time. The narrow-sense heritability (h2) estimates of heat tolerance based on a parental half-sibling breeding design ranged from 0.47±0.03 to 0.51±0.06, and the estimates of cold tolerance varied from 0.33±0.07 to 0.36±0.06. Additive genetic variances were significantly different from zero for both heat and cold tolerance. These results suggest that invasive B. tabaci Mediterranean cryptic species possesses a strong ability to respond to thermal selection and develops rapid resistance to climate change. © 2014 Ma et al. Source

Lu Z.-C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao Q.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.-H.,Center for Management of Invasive Alien Species | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Insect Science | Year: 2014

With increasing global climate change, analyses of stress-inducing conditions have important significance in ecological adaptation and the biological distribution of species. To reveal the difference in temperature-adaptive strategy between Turpan and Beijing populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) under high-temperature stress conditions, we compared thermal tolerance and life history traits between Beijing and Turpan populations of MEAM1 after exposure to different heat shock treatments for different times. The experimental design reflected the nature of heat stress conditions suffered by MEAM1. The results showed that eggs, red-eyed pupae, and adults of the Turpan population were more heat tolerant than those of the Beijing population under the same stress conditions. Additionally, it was found that longevity and F1 adult survival rate were significantly higher in the Turpan population than in the Beijing population after heat shock stress, but egg number and F1 female ratio were not significantly different between Turpan population and Beijing population. Overall, it was suggested that heat tolerance and longevity traits were the most relevant for climate characteristics and not reproductive traits, and improved heat tolerance and prolonged longevity were important adaptive strategies that helped MEAM1 to survive in harsh high-temperature conditions such as Turpan arid desert climate. The present results provided further insight into the modes of heat tolerance and the ways in which survival and longevity traits respond to environmental selection pressures. © The Author 2014. Source

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