Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases

Rotterdam, Netherlands

Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases

Rotterdam, Netherlands

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De Esch C.E.F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Ghazvini M.,Erasmus Medical Center | Loos F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Schelling-Kazaryan N.,KNAW Hubrecht Institute | And 12 more authors.
Stem Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Silencing of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. To study the epigenetic modifications of the FMR1 gene during silencing in time, we used fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of an unmethylated full mutation (uFM) individual with normal intelligence. The uFM fibroblast line carried an unmethylated FMR1 promoter region and expressed normal to slightly increased FMR1 mRNA levels. The FMR1 expression in the uFM line corresponds with the increased H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation in combination with a reduced H3K9 methylation. After reprogramming, the FMR1 promoter region was methylated in all uFM iPSC clones. Two clones were analyzed further and showed a lack of FMR1 expression, whereas the presence of specific histone modifications also indicated a repressed FMR1 promoter. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the standard reprogramming procedure leads to epigenetic silencing of the fully mutated FMR1 gene. © 2014 The Authors.


Mogalle K.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Perez-Rovira A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Perez-Rovira A.,Erasmus MC Sophia Childrens Hospital | Ciet P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: Diaphragm weakness is the main reason for respiratory dysfunction in patients with Pompe disease, a progressive metabolic myopathy affecting respiratory and limb-girdle muscles. Since respiratory failure is the major cause of death among adult patients, early identification of respiratory muscle involvement is necessary to initiate treatment in time and possibly prevent irreversible damage. In this paper we investigate the suitability of dynamic MR imaging in combination with state-of-the-art image analysis methods to assess respiratory muscle weakness. Methods: The proposed methodology relies on image registration and lung surface extraction to quantify lung kinematics during breathing. This allows for the extraction of geometry and motion features of the lung that characterize the independent contribution of the diaphragm and the thoracic muscles to the respiratory cycle. Results: Results in 16 3D+t MRI scans (10 Pompe patients and 6 controls) of a slow expiratory maneuver show that kinematic analysis from dynamic 3D images reveals important additional information about diaphragm mechanics and respiratory muscle involvement when compared to conventional pulmonary function tests. Pompe patients with severely reduced pulmonary function showed severe diaphragm weakness presented by minimal motion of the diaphragm. In patients with moderately reduced pulmonary function, cranial displacement of posterior diaphragm parts was reduced and the diaphragm dome was oriented more horizontally at full inspiration compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: Dynamic 3D MRI provides data for analyzing the contribution of both diaphragm and thoracic muscles independently. The proposed image analysis method has the potential to detect less severe diaphragm weakness and could thus be used to determine the optimal start of treatment in adult patients with Pompe disease in prospect of increased treatment response. © 2016 Mogalle et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Ebbink B.J.,Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases | Van Gelder C.M.,Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases | Van Den Hout J.M.P.,Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases | Jaeken J.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2012

Objective: Classic infantile Pompe disease affects many tissues, including the brain. Untreated infants die within their first year. Although enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) significantly increases survival, its potential limitation is that the drug cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. We therefore investigated long-term cognitive development in patients treated with ERT. Methods: We prospectively assessed cognitive functioning in 10 children with classic infantile Pompe disease who had been treated with ERT since 1999. Brain imaging was performed in 6 children. Results: During the first 4 years of life, developmental scores in 10 children ranged from aboveaverage development to severe developmental delay; they were influenced by the type of intelligence test used, severity of motor problems, speech/language difficulties, and age at start of therapy. Five of the children were also tested from 5 years onward. Among them were 2 tetraplegic children whose earlier scores had indicated severe developmental delay. These scores now ranged between normal and mild developmental delay and indicated that at young age poor motor functioning may interfere with proper assessment of cognition. We found delayed processing speed in 2 children. Brain imaging revealed periventricular white matter abnormalities in 4 children. Conclusions: Cognitive development at school age ranged between normal and mildly delayed in our long-term survivors with classic infantile Pompe disease treated with ERT. The oldest was 12 years. We found that cognition is easily underestimated in children younger than 5 years with poor motor functioning. Copyright © 2012 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.


Wens S.C.A.,Erasmus Medical Center | Wens S.C.A.,Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases | Schaaf G.J.,Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases | Schaaf G.J.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 23 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2016

Background-Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or myocardial injury. Methods and Results-In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band levels, and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood-onset, and adult-onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values <14 ng/L). Cardiac troponin I levels were normal in all patients, whereas CK-myocardial band levels were increased in 59% of patients. cTnT levels correlated with CK levels in all 3 subgroups (P<0.001). None of the abnormal ECGs recorded in 21 patients were indicative of acute myocardial infarction, and there were no differences in cTnT levels between patients with and without (n=90) abnormalities on ECG (median 28 ng/L in both groups). The median left ventricular mass index measured with echocardiography was normal in all the 3 subgroups. cTnT mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in patients with Pompe disease. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue. Conclusions-Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage, rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.


Wens S.C.A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Wens S.C.A.,Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases | Ciet P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Ciet P.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 12 more authors.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Pompe disease is a progressive metabolic myopathy. Involvement of respiratory muscles leads to progressive pulmonary dysfunction, particularly in supine position. Diaphragmatic weakness is considered to be the most important component. Standard spirometry is to some extent indicative but provides too little insight into diaphragmatic dynamics. We used lung MRI to study diaphragmatic and chest-wall movements in Pompe disease. Methods: In ten adult Pompe patients and six volunteers, we acquired two static spirometer-controlled MRI scans during maximum inspiration and expiration. Images were manually segmented. After normalization for lung size, changes in lung dimensions between inspiration and expiration were used for analysis; normalization was based on the cranial-caudal length ratio (representing vertical diaphragmatic displacement), and the anterior-posterior and left-right length ratios (representing chest-wall movements due to thoracic muscles). Results: We observed striking dysfunction of the diaphragm in Pompe patients; in some patients the diaphragm did not show any displacement. Patients had smaller cranial-caudal length ratios than volunteers (p < 0.001), indicating diaphragmatic weakness. This variable strongly correlated with forced vital capacity in supine position (r = 0.88) and postural drop (r = 0.89). While anterior-posterior length ratios also differed between patients and volunteers (p = 0.04), left-right length ratios did not (p = 0.1). Conclusions: MRI is an innovative tool to visualize diaphragmatic dynamics in Pompe patients and to study chest-walland diaphragmatic movements in more detail. Our data indicate that diaphragmatic displacement may be severely disturbed in patients with Pompe disease. © 2015 Wens et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Wens S.C.A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Ciet P.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Perez-Rovira A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Logie K.,Erasmus MC Sophia | And 7 more authors.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Pompe disease is a progressive metabolic myopathy. Involvement of respiratory muscles leads to progressive pulmonary dysfunction, particularly in supine position. Diaphragmatic weakness is considered to be the most important component. Standard spirometry is to some extent indicative but provides too little insight into diaphragmatic dynamics. We used lung MRI to study diaphragmatic and chest-wall movements in Pompe disease. Methods: In ten adult Pompe patients and six volunteers, we acquired two static spirometer-controlled MRI scans during maximum inspiration and expiration. Images were manually segmented. After normalization for lung size, changes in lung dimensions between inspiration and expiration were used for analysis; normalization was based on the cranial-caudal length ratio (representing vertical diaphragmatic displacement), and the anterior-posterior and left-right length ratios (representing chest-wall movements due to thoracic muscles). Results: We observed striking dysfunction of the diaphragm in Pompe patients; in some patients the diaphragm did not show any displacement. Patients had smaller cranial-caudal length ratios than volunteers (p < 0.001), indicating diaphragmatic weakness. This variable strongly correlated with forced vital capacity in supine position (r = 0.88) and postural drop (r = 0.89). While anterior-posterior length ratios also differed between patients and volunteers (p = 0.04), left-right length ratios did not (p = 0.1). Conclusions: MRI is an innovative tool to visualize diaphragmatic dynamics in Pompe patients and to study chest-walland diaphragmatic movements in more detail. Our data indicate that diaphragmatic displacement may be severely disturbed in patients with Pompe disease. © 2015 Wens et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | Center for Lysosomal and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospitals Leuven, Erasmus University Rotterdam and AZ Groeninge
Type: | Journal: JIMD reports | Year: 2015

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis due to a mutation in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene. The mutation causes a deficiency in the porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme, thereby causing an accumulation of heme precursors (-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen). These neurotoxic heme precursors elicit acute neurovisceral attacks, which can be treated with heme-arginate infusions. Some patients require heme-arginate infusions on a regular basis for many years, which ultimately leads to an iron accumulation (increased serum ferritin and iron accumulation in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow on MRI). We report three AIP patients, who developed iron accumulation (with serum ferritin up to 7,850 microgram/liter) due to multiple heme-arginate infusions. We report for the first time that the iron accumulation in these patients was associated with fibrosis on liver histology.Regular heme-arginate treatment in AIP does not only lead to increased serum ferritin but may also induce liver fibrosis. This should be taken into account, when weighing the risks and benefits of repeated heme-arginate treatment against the risk and benefits of treating refractory AIP by liver transplantation.

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