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Sokerya S.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Phanchadcharam C.,Azlan | Suy M.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Hoglund J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Twenty four 4-6 months-old male goats weighing 15.2 ± 2.8 kg, were randomly allocated acrding to their live weight (LWt) into three treatments to investigate the effects of cassava foliage silage (CaS) on the level of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode parasites. One group of individually penned goats was fed CaS ad libitum for 10 weeks. A second group was fed grass only (CTL) and a third group given grass supplemented with 50 g urea molasses plus 200 g soybean meal/head/day (UM). At the start of the experiment, all goats were inoculated with 3,000 third-stage GI nematode larvae (L3). There was a significant difference in cumulative live weight (LWt) among the three treatments (p < 0.001): all 8 CaS and 6 of the UM goats gained weight (average daily gain was 60.4 and 6.7 g/day, respectively), whereas goats in CTL lost weight (-6.1 g/day). The nematode faecal egg counts (FEC) in the CTL and UM groups fluctuated between 1,000 epg after three weeks of L3 infection to 2,500 epg at the end of the trial, while the FEC of the CaS goats remained below 200 epg throughout the experiment (p < 0.001). At the end of the experiment, the CaS and UM groups had 28% and 26% blood packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, which was significantly higher than the 21% in the CTL group (p £ 0.001). The majority (30-78%) of the adult worms identified at slaughter was Haemonchus contortus, followed by Trichostrongylus colubriformis (20-48%), T. axei (2-17%) and a small number of Strongyloides spp. (< 5%). compared to CTL and UM, the CaS goats had lower total worm burdens (p < 0.05) and numbers of Haemonchus contortus (p £ 0.001). It is evident that the goats fed ensiled cassava foliage were more resilient and resistant to GI nematode parasitism, and in particular to Haemonchus contortus, compared to those only given protein supplementation.

Ly J.,Institute Ciencia Animal | Samkol P.,Center for Livestock and agriculture Development CelAgrid
Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2014

An intense work of research was carried out in different areas of the tropics between 1993 and 2003. The investigation was about the use of shrub-like and arboreous foliage of mulberry (Morus alba) as a source of protein for feeding pigs. The mulberry can be used in the tropic as a permanent crop integrated to systems of animal production, mainly of swines. According to the existing information about the use of mulberry foliage for feeding growing/fattening pigs, the conclusion was that between 20 and 25 % of the total ration could be constituted by mulberry foliage. The age of cut and the management of the planting fertilization are among the factors that can influence on the response of the herd. Further researches should be required but, over all things, the implementation of the available results for increasing the efficiency of the systems of swine production through the integration of the tree component as an essential subsystem because there are already enough data that benefit the use of mulberry foliage for feeding pigs.

Phiny C.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Preston T.R.,TOSOLY | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Twelve crossbred pigs (range of 15 to 20 kg weight) were fed a basal diet of broken rice (restricted to 2% of LW as DM) supplemented with fresh mulberry leaves, fresh sweet potato vines or a mixture of the two foliages. It appeared that a period of some 30 days was required for adaptation to the diets. during which time there were no differences among treatments. From 30 to 90 days and for the overall period of 0-90 days, intake of DM and crude protein, and live weight gain was highest for pigs fed the diet supplemented only with sweet potato vines with lowest values for pigs fed only mulberry leaves as the supplement. There was a tendency for feed conversion to follow a similar pattern. DM intake and growth rate were positively correlated (R2 = 0.83). It is concluded that the benefits of the sweet potato vines are their superior palatability compared with mulberry leaves, which resulted in higher intakes of DM and crude protein and better pig performance.

Sophal C.,Royal University of Agriculture | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Eighteen male local "Yellow" cattle with average weight of 101±14.5 kg were allocated in a randomized complete block design (RCB) to a 3*2 factorial combination of 6 treatments, with three replicates of each treatment. The factors were: 3 sources of rumen supplement (water hyacinth leaves, water hyacinth leaves + stem and urea-mineral mixture), and supplementation or not with cassava hay. The basal diet was untreated rice straw fed ad libitum. The rumen supplements were offered at levels to provide 100 g crude protein (CP) per 100 kg live weight. The cassava hay was offered at levels equivalent to 200 g CP per 100 kg live weight. Live weight gain was increased dramatically when cassava hay was fed. However, there was a significant interaction between the effect of the cassava hay and the rumen supplements. When cassava hay was fed growth rates were higher when the leaves of water hyacinth were given as the rumen supplement with no difference between water hyacinth leaves plus stem and the urea-mineral mixture. In the absence of cassava hay, the cattle fed either leaves or leaves plus stem of water hyacinth lost body weight while those fed the urea-mineral mixture gained in weight. It is concluded: (i) that water hyacinth leaves can be used effectively as a source of rumen nutrients for growing cattle on a basal diet of rice straw provided a source of bypass protein (in this case cassava hay) is also fed; and (ii) that the limiting factors in water hyacinth foliage are the presence of anti-nutritional factors the negative effects of which are exacerbated at low levels of CP intake.

Sokchea H.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

A biotest with maize as indicator plant was used to measure the value as an amender of acid soil (pH 4.6) of biochar derived from gasification of rice husks. The experiment was designed as a 5 2 2 factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replicates. The factors were: source of biochar (from a downdraft gasifier reacgtor or an updraft gasifier stove). level of biochar (0, 2, 4, 6 or 8% added to the soil); and application of biodigester effluent (0 or 10 g N/m2). The biochar from the stove contained more ash (less organic matter) and the pH was higher compared with biochar from the gasifier. The yield of the aerial fraction and of total biomass of maize was 30% higher when the soil (pH 4.6) was amended (at 6 to 8% of the soil) with biochar from an updraft gasiifier stove than from a downdraft gasifier reactor. There was no effect of the level of biochar on maize growth in the absence of biodigester effluent but growth was increased 90% when biochar was incorporated at 6% of the soil and biodigester effluent was applied at 10g N/m2 over 30 days. Soil pH was raised from 4.6 to 4.9 and water holding capacity by 50% when 6-8% biochar was added to the soil.

Sath K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Sath K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Pauly T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Holtenius K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

The nutrient composition of six forage types from two zones in Cambodia was compared against faecal and urinary excretion of macro minerals by growing cattle in these regions. The forage types were rice bran, rice straw, para grass, cassava foliage (leaves and petioles), leucaena leaves and water hyacinth leaves. One sample of each forage type was collected from four different sites representing two major agro-ecological zones of Cambodia. Potential mineral deficiency was investigated by analysing the mineral composition of faeces and urine samples collected from 28 non-pregnant, non-lactating cows of the Local Yellow breed, equally distributed between the two zones. The analyses showed that Ca and P levels varied markedly between the different forages. The P concentration in rice bran matched animal requirements but that in rice straw was low and that in cassava foliage, leucaena leaves, para grass and water hyacinth was marginal. The concentration of all minerals in faeces dry matter was slightly higher in one of the two regions. The data obtained on faecal and urinary excretion of minerals indicated that Ca, P, Na and Mg intake was insufficient in the cattle sampled. The results also indicated that several of the commonly used forages in Cambodia have a mineral composition that does not fully cover the requirements of growing cattle. However, it would be possible to meet the requirements by mixing these forages. © Medwell Journals, 2012.

Sokchea H.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Preston T.R.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to measure the effect of biochar produced from rice husk by different types of combustion (drowndraft gasifier and paddy rice drying machine) and the interaction between two kinds of fertilizer (biodigester effluent and urea) on soil fertility and paddy rice grain yield. The experiment was done at the ecological farm of the Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development (CelAgrid), located in Phnom Penh city, Cambodia. The experiment was designed as a 2*2*2 factorial in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with 4 replicates and in 32 plots each of 20 m2. The first factor was type of biochar (from a downdraft gasifier or a rice dryer); the second factor was the level of biochar (0 and 3 kg/m2); the third factor was source of fertilizer N (Biodigester effluent or urea at 100 kg N/ha/crop). The rice husk biochar increased yields of rice grain and straw by 30 and 40%, respectively; but there were no differences between biochar produced in a downdraft gasifier compared with that from a rice dryer, nor between urea and biodigester effluent as N fertilizer. Biodigester effluent increased rice grain yield more than urea in the absence of biochar but there were no differences between the two fertilizers when biochar was applied. Biochar increased soil pH, water holding capacity and cation exchange capacity. These criteria were not affected by the source of N fertilizer, nor by the source of the biochar.

Sath K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Sath K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Pauly T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Holtenius K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

Eight male cattle of the Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage supplementation on mineral metabolism in growing cattle fed rice straw and para grass as basal diet. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cassava foliage intake was lower than the planned levels. DM consumption was significantly affected by cassava foliage supplementation, with the largest intake observed at the two highest levels of cassava foliage supplementation. Rice straw intake showed the opposite pattern, with lower intake at higher cassava foliage supplementation. No refusals occurred for para grass in any of the treatments. Ca, P, Mg, K, S and Mn intake increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage, but Na intake was not affected by treatment. Faecal excretion of Ca, Mg, S and Mn increased significantly with increasing cassava foliage intake. There were no differences between P, K and Na excretion in faeces. There was a significant diet effect on Mg, S and Mn digestibility. Mg and Mn digestibility increased with increasing cassava foliage supplementation, while S digestibility decreased. Ca, P, K and Na digestibility was not affected by diet. There was a significant effect of treatment on P retention, with the highest value observed for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. Ca and Mg showed similar trends, with the highest retention again for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. There were weak but significant positive correlations between nitrogen retention and the macro minerals Ca, P and Mg. Furthermore, retention of all these minerals was positively correlated. Mineral losses in urine were not affected by dietary treatment with the exception of P excretion, which was affected by treatment. In conclusion, cassava foliage is a good Ca source which compensates for the low Ca content in rice straw and para grass, but P deficiency appears to be exaggerated in cattle with higher cassava intake. The results suggest that under these conditions growing cattle on a high cassava intake would benefit from P and S supplementation. Copyright © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

Schwanke Khilji S.U.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Rudge J.W.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Drake T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chavez I.,Mahidol University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal for Equity in Health | Year: 2013

Introduction. Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. Methods. A health facility survey performed across Cambodia obtained data on availability of healthcare resources important for pandemic influenza response. Focusing on five key resources considered most necessary for treating severe influenza (inpatient beds, doctors, nurses, oseltamivir, and ventilators), resource distributions were analyzed at the Operational District (OD) and Province levels, refining data analysis from earlier studies. Resources were stratified by respondent type (hospital vs. District Health Office [DHO]). A summary index of distribution inequality was calculated using the Gini coefficient. Indices for local spatial autocorrelation were measured at the OD level using geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Finally, a potential link between socioeconomic status and resource distribution was explored by mapping resource densities against poverty rates. Results: Gini coefficient calculation revealed variable inequality in distribution of the five key resources at the Province and OD levels. A greater percentage of the population resides in areas of relative under-supply (28.5%) than over-supply (21.3%). Areas with more resources per capita showed significant clustering in central Cambodia while areas with fewer resources clustered in the northern and western provinces. Hospital-based inpatient beds, doctors, and nurses were most heavily concentrated in areas of the country with the lowest poverty rates; however, beds and nurses in Non-Hospital Medical Facilities (NHMF) showed increasing concentrations at higher levels of poverty. Conclusions: There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution across Cambodia. Distribution mapping at the local level can inform policy decisions on where to stockpile resources in advance of and for reallocation in the event of a pandemic. These findings will be useful in determining future health resource investment, both for pandemic preparedness and for general health system strengthening, and provide a foundation for future analyses of equity in health services provision for pandemic mitigation planning in Cambodia. © 2013 Schwanke Khilji et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Royal University of Agriculture, University of Sydney and Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2015

A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD=2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and cut-and-carry natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD=0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

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