Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development

Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development

Phnom Penh, Cambodia
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OSBJER K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | BOQVIST S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | SOKERYA S.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | CHHENG K.,National Institute of Public Health | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2016

Campylobacter are worldwide-occurring zoonotic bacteria, with the species Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli commonly associated with diarrhoea in children in low-income countries. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli in human and livestock faecal samples was detected by PCR and zoonotic risk factors associated with human Campylobacter positivity were identified. In total 681 humans and 753 livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle) from 269 households were sampled. Children aged <16 years were more frequently Campylobacter positive (19%) than adults (8%) and multilevel logistic models revealed that human C. jejuni positivity was associated with the following household practices: home-slaughtering [odds ratio (OR) 2·4, P = 0·01], allowing animals access to sleeping and food preparation areas (OR 2·8, P = 0·02), and eating undercooked meat (OR 6·6, P = 0·05), while frequent consumption of beef was protective (OR 0·9, P = 0·05). Associations were stronger for home-slaughtering (OR 4·9, P = 0·004) with C. jejuni infection in children only. Campylobacter was highly prevalent in pigs (72%) and chickens (56%) and risk factors associated with human Campylobacter positivity were identified throughout the meat production chain. The findings underline the importance of studying source attributions throughout the production chain and the need for upgraded understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in low-income countries. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


PubMed | Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala University, National Institute of Public Health, National Veterinary Research Institute and Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica | Year: 2016

Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible.


Osbjer K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Boqvist S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sokerya S.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Kannarath C.,National Institute for Public Health | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Zoonotic diseases are disproportionately affecting poor societies in low-income countries and pose a growing threat to public health and global food security. Rural Cambodian households may face an increased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic diseases as people there live in close association with livestock. The objectives of the study was to identify practices known to influence zoonosis transmission in rural Cambodian households and relate the practices to agro-ecological region, socio-economic position, demographics, livestock management and zoonosis awareness. Methods: The study was conducted in three different agro-ecological regions of Cambodia; 10 villages each in the central lowlands, north-west wetlands and on the south coast, where information was obtained in questionnaires administered to 300 households, and 30 village heads and animal health workers. Results: Descriptive analysis revealed a gender difference in responsibility for livestock and that the main purpose of raising livestock was for sale. Few respondents (6%) perceived a likelihood of disease transmission in their village between livestock, humans and wildlife, despite household practices related to zoonosis transmission being common. More than one-forth of households practised behaviours such as culling sick animals for consumption, eating animals found dead and allowing animals to enter sleeping and food preparation areas. Associations between household practices and possible explanatory factors were analysed with multivariable models using generalised estimation equations to account for clustering of practices within villages. Factors found to influence household practices were agro-ecological region, socio-economic position, number of people in the household, livestock species reared and awareness of zoonoses. Conclusions: Cambodia has experienced numerous fatal human cases of zoonotic influenza and extensive influenza information campaigns have been run, yet only a few of the households surveyed here reported the threat of zoonosis to be a concern in their village. Zoonosis awareness was positively related to hand washing behaviour, but other practices associated with an increased or decreased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic pathogens were unaffected by awareness. The findings indicate a knowledge-to-action gap among rural farmers and highlight the necessity for reconstructed interventions in zoonotic disease control. © 2015 Osbjer et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Osbjer K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Boqvist S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sokerya S.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Kannarath C.,National Institute for Public Health | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Zoonotic diseases are disproportionately affecting poor societies in low-income countries and pose a growing threat to public health and global food security. Rural Cambodian households may face an increased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic diseases as people there live in close association with livestock. The objectives of the study was to identify practices known to influence zoonosis transmission in rural Cambodian households and relate the practices to agro-ecological region, socio-economic position, demographics, livestock management and zoonosis awareness. Methods: The study was conducted in three different agro-ecological regions of Cambodia; 10 villages each in the central lowlands, north-west wetlands and on the south coast, where information was obtained in questionnaires administered to 300 households, and 30 village heads and animal health workers. Results: Descriptive analysis revealed a gender difference in responsibility for livestock and that the main purpose of raising livestock was for sale. Few respondents (6%) perceived a likelihood of disease transmission in their village between livestock, humans and wildlife, despite household practices related to zoonosis transmission being common. More than one-forth of households practised behaviours such as culling sick animals for consumption, eating animals found dead and allowing animals to enter sleeping and food preparation areas. Associations between household practices and possible explanatory factors were analysed with multivariable models using generalised estimation equations to account for clustering of practices within villages. Factors found to influence household practices were agro-ecological region, socio-economic position, number of people in the household, livestock species reared and awareness of zoonoses. Conclusions: Cambodia has experienced numerous fatal human cases of zoonotic influenza and extensive influenza information campaigns have been run, yet only a few of the households surveyed here reported the threat of zoonosis to be a concern in their village. Zoonosis awareness was positively related to hand washing behaviour, but other practices associated with an increased or decreased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic pathogens were unaffected by awareness. The findings indicate a knowledge-to-action gap among rural farmers and highlight the necessity for reconstructed interventions in zoonotic disease control. © 2015 Osbjer et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Sath K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Sath K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sokun K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Pauly T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Holtenius K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW).


Chhay T.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Preston T.R.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Three crossbred castrated male pigs, weighing on average 24 kg were allotted at random to 3 diets within a 3*3 Latin square, to study the effect of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) silage (leaves + stems) and mulberry leaf silage, or a 50:50 combination of both foliages, on digestibility and N retention of growing pigs fed a basal diet of rice bran. The rice bran was restricted at 1% of body weight (DM basis) while the silages were fed ad libitum. Diets with 67% of mulberry leaf silage plus 33% rice bran and 74% Taro (leaf + stem) silage with 26% rice bran (DM basis) supported relatively high rates of feed intake (30 and 39 g DM/kg LW/day). The mixed silage (50:50 as DM of each forage) was consumed at 36 g/kg LW/day. Apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, crude protein, NDF and ADF were higher for diets containing Taro silage compared with mulberry silage alone, with no difference between 50% Mulberry-50% Taro silage and 100% Taro silage. N retention when corrected for N intake did not differ among diets. It is concluded that the protein in Taro foliage (leaves + stems) is more digestible than the protein in mulberry leaves but that the biological value of the protein is similar for both foliages.


Sokchea H.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

Increasing levels of biochar (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 kg DM/m2) derived from rice husk were applied to plots cultivated with Mustard Green vegetable for three successive crop cycles. The biochar was applied 15 days prior to transplanting the Mustard Green seedlings in the first cropping cycle only. Biodigester effluent or urea (100 kg N/ha) were applied during each cropping cycle. The initial application of biochar showed carry-over effects in soil amendment as measured by: (i) increases in pH and in water holding capacity of the soil in each of the three cycles; and (ii) higher biomass vegetable yield in each of the three cropping cycles. However, the relative increases in yield for the best biochar treatment over the control (zero biochar) decreased from the first to the third cropping cycle. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Ty C.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Preston T.R.,Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

Ten crossbred gilts (Large White*local breed), with an average body weight of 122±4.62 kg were mated by AI with semen from a Pietrain boar and followed for one complete reproductive cycle, during which they received diets of rice bran replaced by ensiled Taro (Colocacia ensiformis) foliage at levels (DM basis) of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60%. The experimental diets were offered three weeks after mating. Feeding was 2% of live weight (DM basis) during pregnancy and ad libitum during lactation. There were curvilinear responses in intake of DM and crude protein during gestation and lactation with the maximum values recorded with 30% taro foliage silage in the diet DM. Weight gain of the gilts during pregnancy increased as taro foraage silage was raised to the 30% level with no further increase up to 60% taro silage. Feed conversion ratio showed a positive linear response to level of taro foliage silage. Less live weight was lost during lactation as rice bran was replaced by with ensiled taro foliage, with optimum values at 45 and 60% levels of ensiled taro foliage in the diet. The number of piglets born was lowest on the 100% rice bran diet and highest with 60% replacement by Taro silage. The total litter weight at birth did not difffer among treatments as weights of the piglets reflected the size of the litter. Litter weights at weaning did not differ among treatments. Overall feed conversion (feed consumed during gestation and lactation per kg piglet weaned) appeared to improve as the proportion of taro silage in the diet was inceased. Diets composed of approximately equal parts (DM basis) of ensiled taro foliage and rice bran supported satisfactory reproduction and lactation in crossbred gilts.


Ty C.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Preston T.R.,Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enzyme supplementation on digestibility and N balance in growing pigs fed fiber-rich diets based on rice bran and ensiled foliage of Taro (Colocacia esculenta). Eight crossbred (Large White × Local) castrate male pigs weighing 30.2±0.80 kg were allotted to a 2*2 factorial arrangement of four treatments in a double Latin Square. Each experimental period was of 12 days with collection of feces, urine and feed residues on the last 5 days of each period. The first factor was with or without enzyme supplementation and the second was grade of rice bran (fine or coarse). The fine rice bran was higher in crude protein (CP) and lower in crude fiber (CF) than the coarse bran. Intakes of DM, taro foliage and CP were increased by enzyme supplementation on the coarse bran diet but there was no effect of enzyme in the diets with fine bran. Overall intakes were higher for fine than for coarse bran diets. The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP and CF were higher for fine rice bran diets compared with coarse rice bran. On the coarse bran diet enzyme supplementation increased the digestibiliity of DM, OM, CP and CF but had no effect in the diets based on fine rice bran. N retention was increased by enzyme supplementation and by using fine compared with coarse rice bran. There were no interactions among the treatments. It was concluded that the nutritive value of rice bran-ensiled taro foliage diets for growing pigs is enhanced by supplementation with a mixed enzyme preparation and that the effect is greater on diets with higher content of crude fiber.


Ty C.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Kimseang A.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Preston T.R.,Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

The experiment was conducted in the Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development (CelAgrid). Four crossbred (Large White x Local) castrate male pigs weighing on average 30.1±0.97kg were allotted at random to four diets. The level of rice bran was 10, 20, 30 and 40% in the diet (DM basis) and the remainder was taro foliage ensiled with banana stem. The proportion of taro foliage (leaves and stems) and banana stem silage was 50:50 in DM basis without adding any other ingredient. The design was a 4*4 Latin square. The ensiled mixture of taro (Colocasia esculenta) foliage and banana stem was more palatable than rice bran. All measures of dietary nutritional value (DM intake, apparent digestibility of DM, CP and N retention) were increased when the ensiled mixture of taro and banana stem replaced rice bran.

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