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Zhang X.,Harvard University | Burstein R.,Harvard University | Levy D.,Harvard University | Levy D.,Center for Life science
Cephalalgia | Year: 2012

Background: Peripheral nociceptive action of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous pain syndromes. An increase in the level of these cytokines in jugular venous blood has been reported during migraine attacks, suggesting their potential involvement in mediating the intracranial headache of migraine. Methods: In this work we examined, using in vivo single-unit recording of meningeal nociceptors in the trigeminal ganglion of anesthetized rats, whether the peripheral actions of IL-1β and IL-6 can promote the activation and sensitization of nociceptors that innervate the intracranial meninges, two neural processes that are believed to play a key role in promoting the intracranial throbbing pain of migraine.Results: We found that meningeal application of IL-1β leads to the activation and mechanical sensitization of about 70% and 45% of the nociceptors respectively. In contrast, IL-6 was a very poor modulator of meningeal nociceptors' response properties affecting overall only about 20% of the nociceptors. Conclusions: Our study provides for the first time in vivo electrophysiological evidence that meningeal action of IL-1β can promote the activation and increased mechanosensitivity of intracranial meningeal nociceptors and that IL-6 generally lacks these properties. Future studies are required to examine the mechanism that plays a role in mediating the nociceptive effects of IL-1β on meningeal nociceptors, which may serve as a target for migraine therapy. © International Headache Society 2011. Source

Proulle V.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Furie R.A.,North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System | Merrill-Skoloff G.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Furie B.C.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by thrombosis, fetal loss, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, including anti-β2- glycoprotein-1 autoantibodies (anti-β2GP1) that have a direct role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis in vivo. The cellular targets of the anti-β2GP1 autoantibody/β2GP1 complex invivo werestudied using a laserinduced thrombosis model of APS in a live mouse and human anti-β2GP1 autoantibodies affinity-purified from APS patients. Cell binding of fluorescently labeled β2GP1 and anti-β2GP1 autoantibodies revealed their colocalization on the platelet thrombus but not the endothelium. Anti-β2GP1 autoantibodies enhanced platelet activation, monitored by calcium mobilization, and endothelial activation, monitored by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. When eptifibatide was infused to block platelet thrombus formation, enhanced fibrin generation and endothelial cell activation were eliminated. Thus, the anti-β2GP1 autoantibody/β2GP1 complex binds to the thrombus, enhancing platelet activation, and platelet secretion leads to enhanced endothelium activation and fibrin generation. These results lead to a paradigm shift away from the concept that binding of the anti-β2GP1 autoantibody/β2GP1 complex activates both endothelial cells and platelets toward one in which activation of platelets in response to anti-β2GP1 autoantibody/β2GP1 complex binding leads to subsequent enhanced endothelium activation and fibrin generation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Calderwood S.K.,Center for Life science | Calderwood S.K.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Sub-Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2015

The co-chaperone p50/Cdc37 is an important partner for Hsp90, assisting in molecular chaperone activities, particularly with regard to the regulation of protein kinases. The Hsp90/Cdc37complex controls the folding of a large proportion of protein kinases and thus stands at the hub of a multitude of intracellular signalling networks. Its effects thus reach beyond the housekeeping pathways of protein folding into regulation of a wide range of cellular processes. Due to its influence in cell growth pathways Cdc37 has attracted much attention as a potential intermediate in carcinogenesis. Cdc37 is an attractive potential target in cancer due to: (1) it may be expressed to high level in some types of cancer and (2) Cdc37 controls multiple signaling pathways. This indicates a potential for: (1) selectivity due to its elevated expression and (2) robustness as the co-chaperone may control multiple growth signalling pathways and thus be less prone to evolution of resistance than other oncoproteins. Cdc37 may also be involved in other aspects of pathophysiology. Protein aggregation disorders have been linked to molecular chaperones and to age related declines in molecular chaperones and co-chaperones. Cdc37 appears to be a potential agent in longevity due to its links to protein folding and autophagy and it will be informative to study the role of Cdc37 maintenance/decline in aging organisms. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source

Welner R.S.,Harvard Stem Cell Institute | Amabile G.,Harvard Stem Cell Institute | Bararia D.,National University of Singapore | Czibere A.,Harvard Stem Cell Institute | And 11 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2015

Leukemic cells disrupt normal patterns of blood cell formation, but little is understood about the mechanism. We investigated whether leukemic cells alter functions of normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Exposure to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) caused normal mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells to divide more readily, altered their differentiation, and reduced their reconstitution and self-renewal potential. Interestingly, the normal bystander cells acquired gene expression patterns resembling their malignant counterparts. Therefore, much of the leukemia signature is mediated by extrinsic factors. Indeed, IL-6 was responsible for most of these changes. Compatible results were obtained when human CML were cultured with normal human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, neutralization of IL-6 prevented these changes and treated the disease. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lin S.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Zhang Z.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Xu H.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Li L.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Enteric bacterial pathogens are known to effectively pass through the extremely acidic mammalian stomachs and cause infections in the small and/or large intestine of human hosts. However, their acid-survival strategy and pathogenesis mechanisms remain elusive, largely due to the lack of tools to directly monitor and manipulate essential components (e.g., defense proteins or invasive toxins) participating in these processes. Herein, we have extended the pyrrolysine-based genetic code expansion strategy for encoding unnatural amino acids in enteric bacterial species, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella. Using this system, a photo-cross-linking amino acid was incorporated into a Shigella acid chaperone HdeA (shHdeA), which allowed the identification of a comprehensive list of in vivo client proteins that are protected by shHdeA upon acid stress. To further demonstrate the application of our strategy, an azide-bearing amino acid was introduced into a Shigella type 3 secretion effector, OspF, without interruption of its secretion efficiency. This site-specifically installed azide handle allowed the facile detection of OspF's secretion in bacterial extracellular space. Taken together, these bioorthogonal functionalities we incorporated into enteric pathogens were shown to facilitate the investigation of unique and important proteins involved in the pathogenesis and stress-defense mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria that remain exceedingly difficult to study using conventional methodologies. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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