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Vadez V.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Krishnamurthy L.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Thudi M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Anuradha C.,Andhra University | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Salinity is a complex abiotic stress and understanding the physiological and genetic basis of salinity tolerance is a prerequisite for improving existing crop cultivars. Experiments were undertaken using 126 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between JG 62 (tolerant) and ICCV 2 (sensitive) to characterize traits related to seed yield differences under saline conditions and to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). The population segregated for flowering time and entries were separated into 'early' and 'late' phenology groups to undertake the analysis. In both groups seed yield varied under salinity, with seed number being the most closely related trait to yield. In contrast, seed yield was not related to 100-seed weight or flowering time. Shoot dry weight was positively correlated with seed yield in the early entries only, but had no significant relationship with seed number. The higher sensitivity to salinity of the early entries was related both to a smaller biomass and lesser seed number under saline conditions. A QTL for seed yield under saline conditions was found in linkage group 3 in the late group, and a cluster of QTL for seed yield components in linkage group 6, including a QTL for seed number which explained 37% of the variation. In contrast, no QTL for seed yield was found in the early group, but a QTL for seed number under saline conditions was found. These data indicate that salinity tolerance traits are linked to the degree of earliness in chickpea. Tolerance is determined by the success of reproductive sites in both early and late entries, which relates in part to constitutive traits, and by the capacity of maintaining growth in early-flowering lines only. This is the first report of QTL for seed yield and seed number in chickpea exposed to salinity. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Ahmad-Hamdani M.S.,University of Western Australia | Ahmad-Hamdani M.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Yu Q.,University of Western Australia | Han H.,University of Western Australia | And 4 more authors.
Weed Science | Year: 2013

The biochemical basis of resistance to the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide diclofop-methyl was investigated in a resistant wild oat population (R1), which does not exhibit a resistant ACCase. Rates of foliar uptake and translocation of [14C]-diclofop were the same in the R1 vs. susceptible (S) populations. However, the level of phytotoxic diclofop acid was always found to be lower in the R1 vs. S plants, with a concomitant higher level (up to 1.7-fold) of nontoxic polar diclofop metabolites in R1 relative to the S plants. These results indicate that a non-target-site-based mechanism of enhanced rate of diclofop acid metabolism confers resistance in population R1. Moreover, the high-performance liquid chromotography elution profile of the major diclofop metabolites in R1 is similar to that of wheat, suggesting resistance in individuals of population R1 involves a wheat-like detoxification system mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. In addition, lower level of tissue diclofop acid was also observed using nonradioactive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis in resistant individuals of three other resistant wild oat populations (R2, R3, and R4) known to posses ACCase gene resistance mutations. These results establish that either one or at least two independent resistance mechanisms (target-site ACCase resistance mutations and non-target-site enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism) can be present in individual wild oat plants. © Weed Science Society of America.

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