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Klaufus C.,Center for Latin American Research and Documentation
Habitat International | Year: 2010

In 1998, a market-based programme called the Housing Incentives System (SIV) was introduced in Ecuador to promote low-income housing in urban areas. It was based on three components abbreviated as ABC: Ahorro (savings), Bono (subsidy) and Crédito (credit). Quantitative data suggest that the programme has been successful so far. Since 2007 the SIV programme has been adapted to improve access to low-cost housing in non-urban areas as well. For inhabitants in marginally urban and rural areas, the 'C' has been changed into Comunidad, meaning obliged communal work. This paper explores the territorial distinction embedded in the ABC formula. It is argued that the programme's duality presupposes socio-cultural distinctions between city and countryside that risk enhancing civic inequality, since it forces non-urban citizens to perform more duties than urban residents. The impact of territorial differentiation in housing policy will be interpreted from the point of view of non-urban applicants. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hoogesteger J.,Wageningen University | Hoogesteger J.,Center for Latin American Research and Documentation
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

Although the community represents a very important level at which existing social capital is used to mobilize resources and collective action in the Andes, many irrigation systems need supracommunity cooperation for their management. Based on a case study of the Guanguilquí and Porotog irrigation systems in the northern Ecuadorian Highlands, this article argues that external nongovernmental organizations can play an important role in facilitating the establishment of new supracommunity autonomous water user associations by (1) developing mutual trust relations and reciprocity between individuals and communities (bonding and bridging); (2) facilitating the establishment of a normative framework (water rights) that provides the rules of interaction; (3) assisting in the creation of relations with external agents (linking); and (4) developing local capacities for organizational and technical irrigation management. Once sturdy water user organizations consolidate, they have the potential to mobilize collective action for issues that stretch beyond the management of irrigation systems. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Klaufus C.,Center for Latin American Research and Documentation
Environment and Urbanization | Year: 2010

The largest share of Latin American population lives in cities with less than half a million inhabitants. Since the publication of the Brundtland Report in the 1980s, small and intermediate cities have been regarded as places that hold out a promise for sustainable urban development. This paper explores current urbanization trends in intermediate cities in Central America. It describes the construction boom of gated communities for the middle class, in majority people with access to migrant remittances. It is argued that sustainable urbanization is challenged by the privatization of urban planning. The lack of strong governmental coordination of the housing market along with urban growth puts pressure on natural resources and on the livability of cities that used to be characterized by their human scale and rich natural environment. It is suggested that the market of existing housing should be made more attractive in order to control urban growth and prevent an oversupply of new expensive middle-class homes in the periphery, paralleled by a large number of abandoned existing houses in the urban core. © 2010 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Source


Laurance W.F.,James Cook University | Peletier-Jellema A.,PCS Environmental and Social Impacts | Geenen B.,WWF Netherlands | Koster H.,WWF Netherlands | And 5 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2015

Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such developments. Laurance et al. define nine issues that should be considered to limit the environmental impacts of the massive worldwide infrastructure expansion. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Grant
Agency: Narcis | Branch: Project | Program: Completed | Phase: Social Sciences | Award Amount: | Year: 2000

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