Cong X.W.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2010
To investigate the influence of partial deletions in the AZFc region of the Y chromosome on spermatogenesis. We selected 9 sequence tagged sites (sY1258, sY1291, sY254, sY255, sY1201, sY1206, sY1161, sY1197 and sY1191) in the AZFc region of the Y chromosome, with ZFX/ZFY and SRY (sY14) as the interior control. We amplified by multiplex PCR the DNA of 160 patients with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia that showed no microdeletion of the Y chromosome (the case group) and another 76 males with normal fertility (the control group). For the individuals suspected of DAZ gene deletion, we detected the single nucleotide polymorphism sites (SNPs) in the four copies of the DAZ gene by single nucleotide variation (SNV) analysis to determine the types of DAZ copy deletion. In the case group, there were 10 cases of gr/gr (sY1291) deletion (6.3%), 14 b2/b3 (sY1191) deletion (8.8%), 1 sY1291,sY1197 deletion (0.6%), 1 b1/b2 deletion (0.6%) and 1 b1/b3 deletion (0.6%), while in the control group, there were 4 cases of gr/gr deletion (5.3%) and 4 b2/b3 deletion (5.3%). SNV analysis showed DAZ1/DAZ2 deletion in all those with gr/gr and those with b1/b3 deletion, DAZ3/DAZ4 deletion in those with b2/b3 deletion, and DAZ-SNV sY587 deletion in 1 case of sY1291, sY1197 deletion, but no DAZ deletion was found in 1 case of b1/b2 deletion. B2/b3 (sY1191) and gr/gr (sY1291) deletions are genomic polymorphisms and quite common in the normal Chinese population; while b1/b2, b1/b3, and sY1291, sY1197 deletions may be high risk factors of dyszoospermia.
Huttunen R.,University of Tampere |
Aittoniemi J.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Journal of Infection | Year: 2011
Bacteremia and sepsis are major health concerns. Despite intensive research, there are only a limited number of successful treatment options, and it is difficult to see the forest for the trees when considering the pathogenesis of this condition. Studies in the last decade have shown that a major pathophysiologic event in sepsis is the progression from proinflammation to an immunosuppressive state. However, recent genome-based data indicate that sepsis-related inflammatory responses are highly variable, which calls in question the classic two-phase model of sepsis. Adequate and timely antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone for survival in patients with bacteremia and sepsis. However, microbial resistance has emerged as an increasing challenge for clinicians and with an increasing number of resistant pathogens causing infections, selection of empiric antimicrobial treatment has become difficult. Treatment options currently under way are targeted to enhance immune responses, rebalance the regulation of the dysregulated immune system, remove endotoxin and block/inhibit apoptosis. © 2011 The British Infection Association.
Emergence of SCCmec type IV and SCCmec type V methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus containing the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in a large academic teaching hospital in Central Switzerland: External invaders or persisting circulators?
Valsesia G.,Center for Laboratory Medicine |
Valsesia G.,ETH Zurich |
Rossi M.,Luzerner Kantonsspital |
Bertschy S.,Luzerner Kantonsspital |
Pfyffer G.E.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010
The hospital epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has changed in the past few years due to the encroachment of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains into health care settings. MRSA strains that were isolated during a 2-year period from patients of the Luzerner Kantonsspital were analyzed to elucidate their epidemiology. Moreover, extended surveillance of individuals who were contacts of those patients was carried out for 6 months to identify the routes of spread and to assess the quality of the infection control measures used in our setting. Patient data were collected to distinguish CA-MRSA strains from health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains by epidemiological criteria, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). On the basis of the CDC definition, the majority of the strains were considered to be HA-MRSA. However, 87% of them belonged to staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types IV and V, which are traditionally associated with CA-MRSA. Surprisingly, classical nosocomial SCCmec types I and II represented a minority, whereas SCCmec type III was completely absent. By PFGE analysis, four predominant clonal lineages and 21 highly variable sporadic genotypes were detected. Twentyeight percent of the MRSA strains studied carried the genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), of which 21% and 83% were associated with SCCmec types IV and V, respectively. Among 289 contact individuals screened for MRSA carriage throughout the extended surveillance, a single secondary patient was discovered. The possibility of nosocomial transmission could be excluded. The high proportions of SCCmec type IV and V strains as well as PVL-positive strains suggest strong infiltration of CA-MRSA into our institution. Moreover, the low endemic prevalence of MRSA demonstrates that current infection control measures are sufficient to limit its spreading and the emergence of large epidemic outbreaks. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Deric M.,Center for Laboratory Medicine |
Cabarkapa V.S.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Journal of Medical Biochemistry | Year: 2010
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are markedly increased in chronic renal failure patients. Although it cannot be regarded as a cardiovascular disease risk equivalent, kidney dysfunction is considered an independent predictor of increased cardiovascular risk that increases with deteriorating kidney function. The association is a very complex one, and the term cardiorenal syndrome is now widely used. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients usually manifests as ischemic heart disease (in the form of angina, acute coronary syndrome or sudden cardiac death), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. Vascular disease includes atherosclerosis and vascular calcifications, and cardiomyopathy comprises left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. In addition to the well-established traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, the association is supported by synergistic action of non-traditional risk factors such as excessive calcium-phosphorus load, hyperparathyroidism, anemia, hemodynamic overload, malnutrition, inflammation, hyperhomocysteinemia, altered nitric oxide synthase and increased oxidative stress. This paper summarizes the current understanding of the significance of specific uremic retention solutes, natriuretic peptides, biochemical markers of disorders in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia.
Skramm I.,Akershus University Hospital |
Skramm I.,University of Oslo |
Saltyt Benth J.,University of Oslo |
Saltyt Benth J.,Akershus University Hospital |
Bukholm G.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2012
Background: Infection is the most common reason for early revision after hip and knee arthroplasty, and the revision rate is increasing. Surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance data are important to assess the true infection rate. There is little information regarding the potential time trend in SSI incidence following orthopaedic surgery. Aim: To evaluate whether a time trend exists in SSI incidence due to surveillance following orthopaedic surgery. Methods: The SSI rates after hip and knee replacements and osteosynthesis of trochanteric femoral fractures and ankle fractures were recorded prospectively from May 1998 to October 2008 according to the criteria of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In total, 4177 procedures were analysed, 65.8% of which were performed on female patients. Linear regression was used to analyse trends in SSI rates. Findings: SSI incidence decreased significantly from 7% in the first year to 3% in the last year; a 57% relative reduction. The duration of surgery was the only significant predictor for infection (P < 0.001) in a logistic regression model that also included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists' score and level of emergency. Conclusion: Surveillance following orthopaedic procedures showed a significant decrease in SSI incidence over the 11-year surveillance period. The causality between surveillance and SSI incidence is difficult to prove, but surveillance with feedback probably influences several procedures that affect the quality of health care, even if duration of surgery is the only significant predictor of this effect. © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society.