Magdeburg, Germany
Magdeburg, Germany

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Korte W.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Cattaneo M.,University of Milan | Chassot P.-G.,University of Lausanne | Eichinger S.,Medical University of Vienna | And 4 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2011

An increasing number of patients suffering from cardiovascular disease, especially coronary artery disease (CAD), are treated with aspirin and/or clopidogrel for the prevention of major adverse events. Unfortunately, there are no specific, widely accepted recommendations for the perioperative management of patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. Therefore, members of the Perioperative Haemostasis Group of the Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis Research (GTH), the Perioperative Coagulation Group of the Austrian Society for Anesthesiology, Reanimation and Intensive Care (ÖGARI) and the Working Group Thrombosis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) have created this consensus position paper to provide clear recommendations on the perioperative use of anti-platelet agents (specifically with semi-urgent and urgent surgery), strongly supporting a multidisciplinary approach to optimize the treatment of individual patients with coronary artery disease who need major cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. With planned surgery, drug eluting stents (DES) should not be used unless surgery can be delayed for ≥12 months after DES implantation. If surgery cannot be delayed, surgical revascularisation, bare-metal stents or pure balloon angioplasty should be considered. During ongoing antiplatelet therapy, elective surgery should be delayed for the recommended duration of treatment. In patients with semi-urgent surgery, the decision to prematurely stop one or both antiplatelet agents (at least 5 days pre-operatively) has to be taken after multidisciplinary consultation, evaluating the individual thrombotic and bleeding risk. Urgently needed surgery has to take place under full antiplatelet therapy despite the increased bleeding risk. A multidisciplinary approach for optimal antithrombotic and haemostatic patient management is thus mandatory. © Schattauer 2011.


Deric M.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Cabarkapa V.S.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Journal of Medical Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are markedly increased in chronic renal failure patients. Although it cannot be regarded as a cardiovascular disease risk equivalent, kidney dysfunction is considered an independent predictor of increased cardiovascular risk that increases with deteriorating kidney function. The association is a very complex one, and the term cardiorenal syndrome is now widely used. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients usually manifests as ischemic heart disease (in the form of angina, acute coronary syndrome or sudden cardiac death), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. Vascular disease includes atherosclerosis and vascular calcifications, and cardiomyopathy comprises left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. In addition to the well-established traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, the association is supported by synergistic action of non-traditional risk factors such as excessive calcium-phosphorus load, hyperparathyroidism, anemia, hemodynamic overload, malnutrition, inflammation, hyperhomocysteinemia, altered nitric oxide synthase and increased oxidative stress. This paper summarizes the current understanding of the significance of specific uremic retention solutes, natriuretic peptides, biochemical markers of disorders in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia.


Hombach M.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Pfyffer G.E.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Roos M.,University of Zürich | Lucke K.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Universal surveillance upon patient admission is important in reducing the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and associated disease in hospitals. High costs for the health care system in conjunction with MRSA have promoted the development of rapid screening methods to detect MRSA carriers. This study compared two real-time PCR methods, the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay (BDGO) and the Xpert MRSA assay, with broth-enriched culture to define their performance characteristics and rapidity in an area with low MRSA prevalence. In total, 414 swabs from the nose and 389 swabs from the groin from 425 patients were tested. Of those 425 patients, 378 had swabs from both the nose and groin in parallel. Two hundred thirty-one and 194 patients were randomly assigned to the BDGO group and the Xpert MRSA group, respectively. In general, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value (NPV) were high for the BDGO (100%, 98.5%, and 100%, respectively) and the Xpert MRSA (100%, 98.2%, and 100%, respectively), irrespective of whether or not nasal and inguinal specimens were considered alone or combined. In contrast, the positive predictive value (PPV) was lower: before the resolution of discrepant results, the PPVs for nasal and inguinal specimens alone and combined were 87.5%, 86.7%, and 82.4% for the BDGO and 91.7%, 66.7%, and 92.9% for the Xpert MRSA, respectively. After the resolution of discrepant results, PPVs were 93.8%, 93.3% and 94.1% for the BDGO and 91.7%, 88.9% and 92.9% for the Xpert MRSA, respectively. With the BDGO, 4 of 16 carriers were each identified by nasal or inguinal swabs alone, whereas in the Xpert MRSA group, 4 of 13 carriers were exclusively identified by nasal swabs and 2 of 13 were identified by inguinal swabs alone. Both PCR methods showed no significant difference in the number of discrepant results (odds ratio, 0.70 [P = 0.789]), but specimens from wounds and other body sites (axilla, vagina, and throat) produced discrepancies more often than nasal and groin specimens (odds ratios, 4.724 [P = 0.058] and 12.163 [P < 0.001], respectively). The facts that no false-negative PCR results were detected and increased PPVs were found after the resolution of discrepant results point to PCR as the actual gold standard. Since both sensitivity and NPV were exceptionally high for PCR, backup cultures may, therefore, be unnecessary in an area with low prevalence and with a preemptive isolation strategy but may still be useful for PCR-positive specimens because of the lower PPV for both methods and the possibility of susceptibility testing. The median time for analysis, including extraction, hands-on time, and actual PCR was 2 h 20 min for the Xpert MRSA versus 5 h 40 min for the BDGO. Concerning reporting time, including administration and specimen collection, the Xpert MRSA was faster than the BDGO (7 h 50 min versus 17 h). Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Lucke K.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Hombach M.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Hug M.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Pfyffer G.E.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The efficacy of the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) assay was assessed by analyzing nasal swabs and swabs from other body sites for the presence of MRSA in a low-prevalence area. From 681 patients with a high risk for MRSA carriage, 1,601 specimens were collected and transported in Amies agar. After discordant analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay were 84.3%, 99.2%, 88.4%, and 98.9%, respectively, compared to culture. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Karkouti K.,University of Toronto | Von Heymann C.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Jespersen C.M.,Novo Nordisk AS | Korte W.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2013

Objectives: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass frequently leads to excessive bleeding, obligating blood product transfusions. Because low factor XIII (FXIII) levels have been associated with bleeding after cardiac surgery, we investigated whether administering recombinant FXIII after cardiopulmonary bypass would reduce transfusions. Methods: In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, 409 cardiac surgical patients at moderate risk for transfusion were randomized to receive an intravenous dose of recombinant FXIII, 17.5 IU/kg (n = 143), 35 IU/kg (n = 138), or placebo (n = 128) after cardiopulmonary bypass. Transfusion guidelines were standardized. The primary efficacy outcome was avoidance of allogeneic blood products for 7 days postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included amount of blood products transfused and reoperation rate. Serious adverse events were measured for 7 weeks. Results: Study groups had comparable baseline characteristics and an approximately 40% decrease in FXIII levels after cardiopulmonary bypass. Thirty minutes postdose, FXIII levels were restored to higher than the lower 2.5th percentile of preoperative activity in 49% of the placebo group, and 85% and 95% of the 17.5- and 35-IU/kg recombinant FXIII groups, respectively (P <.05 for both treatments vs placebo). Transfusion avoidance rates were 64.8%, 64.3%, and 65.9% with placebo, 17.5 IU/kg, and 35 IU/kg recombinant FXIII (respective odds ratios against placebo, 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.80] and 0.99 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.72]). Groups had comparable adverse event rates. Conclusions: Replenishment of FXIII levels after cardiopulmonary bypass had no effect on transfusion avoidance, transfusion requirements, or reoperation in moderate-risk cardiac surgery patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00914589). Copyright © 2013 by The American Association for Thoracic Surgery.


Peltola H.,University of Helsinki | Helminen M.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Vuento R.,University of Tampere
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Since many pathogens colonize the child's oro/nasopharynx in a similar manner, elimination of diseases such as those caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has a potential of augmenting other serious infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an agent of special interest now that Hib conjugates have been used widely for more than 2 decades. Patients and Methods: All blood and cerebrospinal fluid isolations of Hib and S. pneumoniae were collected prospectively from 85,000 Finnish children at age 0-15 years by one central laboratory during 27 years. Results: Hib vaccination, launched in 1986-1988, led to a quick decline of cases until the last was detected in 1991. In the next few years, the incidence of bacteremic S. pneumoniae infections increased, but now for 15 years, the numbers of cases have been slowly declining. This finding is not explained by less active sample-taking because the number of blood cultures have almost doubled in the past years. Conclusions: Large-scale Hib vaccination does not increase the incidence of pneumococcal diseases which continue their year-to-year fluctuation at low levels. Only a years-long follow-up permits conclusions on a vaccination's potential influence on the epidemiology of other diseases. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Huber A.R.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Mendez A.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Brunner-Agten S.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Hamostaseologie | Year: 2013

Automatia, an ancient Greece goddess of luck who makes things happen by themselves and on her own will without human engagement, is present in our daily life in the medical laboratory. Automation has been introduced and perfected by clinical chemistry and since then expanded into other fields such as haematology, immunology, molecular biology and also coagulation testing. The initial small and relatively simple standalone instruments have been replaced by more complex systems that allow for multitasking. Integration of automated coagulation testing into total laboratory automation has become possible in the most recent years. Automation has many strengths and opportunities if weaknesses and threats are respected. On the positive side, standardization, reduction of errors, reduction of cost and increase of throughput are clearly beneficial. Dependence on manufacturers, high initiation cost and somewhat expensive maintenance are less favourable factors. The modern lab and especially the todays lab technicians and academic personnel in the laboratory do not add value for the doctor and his patients by spending lots of time behind the machines. In the future the lab needs to contribute at the bedside suggesting laboratory testing and providing support and interpretation of the obtained results. The human factor will continue to play an important role in testing in haemostasis yet under different circumstances. © Schattauer 2013.


Sedille-Mostafaie N.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Engler H.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Lutz S.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Korte W.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Laboratories today face increasing pressure to automate operations due to increasing workloads and the need to reduce expenditure. Few studies to date have focussed on the laboratory automation of preanalytical coagulation specimen processing. In the present study, we examined whether a clinical chemistry automation protocol meets the preanalytical requirements for the analyses of coagulation. Methods: During the implementation of laboratory automation, we began to operate a pre- and postanalytical automation system. The preanalytical unit processes blood specimens for chemistry, immunology and coagulation by automated specimen processing. As the production of platelet-poor plasma is highly dependent on optimal centrifugation, we examined specimen handling under different centrifugation conditions in order to produce optimal platelet deficient plasma specimens. To this end, manually processed models centrifuged at 1500 g for 5 and 20 min were compared to an automated centrifugation model at 3000 g for 7 min. Results: For analytical assays that are performed frequently enough to be targets for full automation, Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed close agreement between different centrifugation methods, with a correlation coefficient between 0.98 and 0.99 and a bias between - 5% and + 6%. For seldom performed assays that do not mandate full automation, the Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed acceptable to poor agreement between different centrifugation methods. Conclusions: A full automation solution is suitable and can be recommended for frequent haemostasis testing.


Valsesia G.,Center for Laboratory Medicine | Valsesia G.,ETH Zurich | Rossi M.,Luzerner Kantonsspital | Bertschy S.,Luzerner Kantonsspital | Pfyffer G.E.,Center for Laboratory Medicine
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

The hospital epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has changed in the past few years due to the encroachment of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains into health care settings. MRSA strains that were isolated during a 2-year period from patients of the Luzerner Kantonsspital were analyzed to elucidate their epidemiology. Moreover, extended surveillance of individuals who were contacts of those patients was carried out for 6 months to identify the routes of spread and to assess the quality of the infection control measures used in our setting. Patient data were collected to distinguish CA-MRSA strains from health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains by epidemiological criteria, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). On the basis of the CDC definition, the majority of the strains were considered to be HA-MRSA. However, 87% of them belonged to staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types IV and V, which are traditionally associated with CA-MRSA. Surprisingly, classical nosocomial SCCmec types I and II represented a minority, whereas SCCmec type III was completely absent. By PFGE analysis, four predominant clonal lineages and 21 highly variable sporadic genotypes were detected. Twentyeight percent of the MRSA strains studied carried the genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), of which 21% and 83% were associated with SCCmec types IV and V, respectively. Among 289 contact individuals screened for MRSA carriage throughout the extended surveillance, a single secondary patient was discovered. The possibility of nosocomial transmission could be excluded. The high proportions of SCCmec type IV and V strains as well as PVL-positive strains suggest strong infiltration of CA-MRSA into our institution. Moreover, the low endemic prevalence of MRSA demonstrates that current infection control measures are sufficient to limit its spreading and the emergence of large epidemic outbreaks. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Meienberg J.,Center for Cardiovascular Genetics and Gene Diagnostics | Zerjavic K.,Center for Cardiovascular Genetics and Gene Diagnostics | Keller I.,University of Bern | Okoniewski M.,ETH Zurich | And 9 more authors.
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2015

Whole exome sequencing (WES) is increasingly used in research and diagnostics. WES users expect coverage of the entire coding region of known genes as well as sufficient read depth for the covered regions. It is, however, unknown which recent WES platform is most suitable to meet these expectations. We present insights into the performance of the most recent standard exome enrichment platforms from Agilent, NimbleGen and Illumina applied to six different DNA samples by two sequencing vendors per platform. Our results suggest that both Agilent and NimbleGen overall perform better than Illumina and that the high enrichment performance of Agilent is stable among samples and between vendors, whereas NimbleGen is only able to achieve vendor- and sample-specific best exome coverage. Moreover, the recent Agilent platform overall captures more coding exons with sufficient read depth than NimbleGen and Illumina. Due to considerable gaps in effective exome coverage, however, the three platforms cannot capture all known coding exons alone or in combination, requiring improvement. Our data emphasize the importance of evaluation of updated platform versions and suggest that enrichment-free whole genome sequencing can overcome the limitations of WES in sufficiently covering coding exons, especially GC-rich regions, and in characterizing structural variants. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

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