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O'Gorman J.R.,University of Limerick | O'Leary O.,University of Limerick | Finner N.,University of Limerick | Quinn A.,University of Limerick | And 3 more authors.
SpringerPlus | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to assess the carbohydrate and insulin knowledge of the staff at Children’s Ark at the University Hospital, Limerick. Carbohydrate counting and insulin dose calculations based on carbohydrates and blood sugars are integral to intensive insulin management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The PedCarbQuiz, a validated questionnaire, was modified, and applied to the staff on our general paediatrics ward. 48/70 eligible staff responded (rate 68 %). Overall knowledge was good: 75.5 % was the average score for correctly identifying foods containing carbohydrate. However, poor scores were obtained for calculating multiple items and meal values (average score 29 %), and exact values of insulin required (average score 38 %). These results highlight the need for re-education among staff on a general paediatrics ward, to empower ward staff to contribute effectively to the education and management of patients with T1DM. © 2015, O'Gorman et al.


Huggard D.,University of Limerick | Stack T.,University of Limerick | Satas S.,University of Limerick | Gorman C.O.,Center for Interventions in Infection
BMJ case reports | Year: 2015

Donohue syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by severe loss-of-function mutations in the insulin receptor (INSR) gene. The diagnosis is made on clinical, biochemical and genetic grounds. Mutations are found on chromosome 19p13.2, and code for mutations in the INSR gene. Treatment is challenging and often unsuccessful, and relies on maintaining normoglycaemia and avoiding fasting; in some patients, recombinant human insulin-like growth factor (rhIGF-1) has been trialled. The prognosis is poor, with most babies dying in infancy. Ethically, it is important to consider the benefit versus burden of treatment, the quality of life of the surviving patient and the parents' wishes, when making decisions regarding withholding or withdrawing care. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.


Scully P.,University of Limerick | Macken A.,University of Limerick | Macken A.,National Childrens Research Center | Macken A.,Center for Interventions in Infection | And 8 more authors.
Irish Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2014

Background: Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Aims: Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising of food during children's programming, we sought to examine the advertising content in children-specific television broadcasts on Irish television. Methods: Advertisement content analysis for 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting from 0700 to 1700 hours on Irish television was performed. Data were coded and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage advertisements were coded based on type of product, nutritional content, intended age group and outcome. Results: 322 advertisements were broadcast during the recording period. 31 % (n = 101) of advertisements related to food or beverage products with 66.3 % (n = 68) of food advertisements being for foods that should be eaten in moderation. The most frequently recorded food advertisement was for fast food products (27.3 %, n = 24), followed by sweets/candy (21.6 %, n = 19) and dairy products (17.0 %, n = 15). The most frequently recorded beverage advertisement was for natural orange juices (46.2 %, n = 6). 54.7 % (n = 176) of advertisements were adult specific with 27.3 % (n = 88) being children specific. All food and beverage advertisements were associated with a positive outcome (n = 322). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that food and beverages depicted in advertisements during children's programming are predominantly unhealthy foods with high salt and sugar contents. The findings from this study again highlight the ongoing need for new rules regarding food advertising in children's programming. © 2014 Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland.


Scully P.,University of Limerick | Reid O.,University of Limerick | Macken A.,University of Limerick | Macken A.,National Childrens Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2015

Objective The link between childhood obesity and both television viewing and television advertising have previously been examined. We sought to investigate the frequency and type of food and beverage placements in children-specific television broadcasts and, in particular, differences between programme genres. Method Content of five weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on both UK (BBC) and Irish (RTE) television channels was summarized. Food and beverage placements were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use and characters involved. A comparison was made between different programme genres: animated, cartoon, child-specific, film, quiz, tween and young persons' programming. Results A total of 1155 (BBC=450; RTE=705) cues were recorded giving a cue every 4·2 min, an average of 12·3 s/cue. The genre with most cues recorded was cartoon programming (30·8 %). For the majority of genres, cues related to sweet snacks (range 1·8-23·3 %) and sweets/candy (range 3·6-25·8 %) featured highly. Fast-food (18·0 %) and sugar-sweetened beverage (42·3 %) cues were observed in a high proportion of tween programming. Celebratory/social motivation factors (range 10-40 %) were most common across all genres while there were low proportions of cues based on reward, punishment or health-related motivating factors. Conclusions The study provides evidence for the prominence of energy-dense/nutrient-poor foods and beverages in children's programming. Of particular interest is the high prevalence of fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage cues associated with tween programming. These results further emphasize the need for programme makers to provide a healthier image of foods and beverages in children's television. © The Authors 2015.


Scully P.,University of Limerick | Reid O.,University of Limerick | Macken A.,University of Limerick | Macken A.,National Childrens Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood | Year: 2014

Objectives: Increased time in which children spend watching television is a well-described contributor to paediatric obesity. This study investigated the frequency and type of food and beverage placement in children-specific television broadcasts and compared data from UK (UK) and Irish television stations. Design: Content analysis, totalling 82.5 h, reflecting 5 weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on UK and Irish television channels was performed. To allow comparison between UK and Irish food and beverage cues, only broadcasts between 06.00 and 11.30 were analysed. Data were coded separately by two analysts and transferred to SPSS for analyses. Food and beverage cues were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use, motivation, outcome and characters involved. Results: A total of 1155 food and beverage cues were recorded. Sweet snacks were the most frequent food cue (13.3%), followed by sweets/candy (11.4%). Tea/coffee was the most frequent beverage cue (13.5%), followed by sugar-sweetened beverages (13.0%). The outcome of the cue was positive in 32.6%, negative in 19.8%, and neutral in 47.5% of cases. The most common motivating factor associated with each cue was celebratory/social (25.2%), followed by hunger/thirst (25.0%). Comparison of UK and Irish placements showed both to portray high levels of unhealthy food cues. However, placements for sugar-sweetened beverages were relatively low on both channels. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of the prominence of unhealthy foods in children's programming. These data may provide guidance for healthcare professionals, regulators and programme makers in planning for a healthier portrayal of food and beverage in children's television. © 2014, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

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