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Wood P.,Green Gecko Ltd | Sheil D.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Sheil D.,Center for International Forest Research | Syaf R.,KKI WARSI | Warta Z.,WWF Indonesia
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2014

We investigated the implementation and sustainability of village conservation agreements and village conservation grants facilitated by an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) around the Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia, 5 years after the project closed. Forty-three percent of agreement actions (n = 180) and 30% of grant activities (n = 74) were sustained. Informants identified numerous factors influencing success, but statistical tests failed to detect simple explanations. Conservation-livelihood agreements have a greater chance of success when preexisting factors are understood and the purpose of the agreement itself is clearly defined. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Pendleton L.,Duke University | Donato D.C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Murray B.C.,Duke University | Crooks S.,ESA Phillip Williams and Associates | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual carbon sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems-marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses-that may be lost with habitat destruction ('conversion'). Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered carbon. Residing mostly in sediments, this 'blue carbon' can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first global estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on global area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface carbon stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.15-1.02 Pg (billion tons) of carbon dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 3-19% of those from deforestation globally, and result in economic damages of $US 6-42 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in global area and rates of land-use conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem carbon upon conversion. Currently, carbon emissions from the conversion of vegetated coastal ecosystems are not included in emissions accounting or carbon market protocols, but this analysis suggests they may be disproportionally important to both. Although the relevant science supporting these initial estimates will need to be refined in coming years, it is clear that policies encouraging the sustainable management of coastal ecosystems could significantly reduce carbon emissions from the land-use sector, in addition to sustaining the well-recognized ecosystem services of coastal habitats. Source

Abebaw D.,Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute | Kassa H.,Center for International Forest Research | Kassie G.T.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Lemenih M.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | And 2 more authors.
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2012

While the importance of forests for livelihoods has long been well-recognized, empirical knowledge of the factors influencing the extent and diversity of household engagement in the extraction of forest products across different socio-economic groups remains limited. In this paper, we use primary data collected through a household survey of 180 households in a resettled dry forest areas of Northwestern Ethiopia. The paper mainly aims at identifying the main drivers of household behavior regarding collection of main forest products in the context of dry forest environment. A multivariate probit analysis was used to explain variation in household participation in collection of different forest products. The results show that households' participation in collection of different forest products is significantly determined by a combination of household demographic characteristics, ownership of oxen and of cows, proximity to forest, access to health and school infrastructure, resettlement history and self-reported change in standard of living. The estimation results also suggest households most likely to engage in collection of forest honey, gum, and wood for fuel and other purposes are those located farther from the forest. Policy implications and outlook for further study are discussed in the paper. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

McDermott C.L.,University of Oxford | Irland L.C.,The Irland Group | Pacheco P.,Center for International Forest Research
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2015

This paper draws on a case study of the Brazilian Amazon to assess how two widely promoted strategies to govern tropical forests - non-state certification and state-based legality initiatives - interact with tropical wood production systems and the implications this holds for reducing deforestation and degradation and for local benefit-sharing. The assessment is guided by an analytical framework that predicts the relevance and receptiveness of different timber supply chains to current systems of trade-based governance. We find that Brazil's efforts to control illegal deforestation through satellite monitoring have contributed significantly to reducing deforestation, but the effects on degradation are less clear. Efforts focused on the timber supply chain, including certification and legal verification of traded timber, have been limited by the fragmented nature of Amazonian wood production. Both certification and legality verification favor large producers and concentrated supply chains destined for external markets (e.g. pulp and paper and high-value tropical sawnwood), while extensive legal requirements inhibit local benefit-capture. In order to prevent the means of forest governance (i.e. certification and law enforcement) from trumping its commonly stated ends (sustainable forest management and local welfare), there is a need to prioritize the generation of local benefit from locally adapted production systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Luttrell C.,Center for International Forest Research | Resosudarmo I.A.P.,Center for International Forest Research | Muharrom E.,Center for International Forest Research | Brockhaus M.,Center for International Forest Research | Seymour F.,Center for International Forest Research
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2014

The political context in Indonesia will affect the success of any reform process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Such reforms require strong political support because of their potentially significant medium-term impact on winners and losers in the Indonesian economy. Although REDD+ in Indonesia has strong rhetorical presidential backing, analysis of the political system suggests that such support may not be sufficient without the engagement and ownership of key players such as the parliament and the bureaucracy. Not only is the president's official power curtailed by the formal political system, but the nature of coalition politics in Indonesia further weakens his ability to implement reforms. Securing the support of a coalition of parties within parliament and the bureaucracy at both national and decentralised levels may be crucial to ensuring implementation. Politicisation of the bureaucracy and increasing business-government relationships are important features of the parliamentary dynamic at the national level and are reportedly intensifying at the local level. Although public support has proved influential for other reforms in Indonesia, the public is less informed or motivated by the issues related to REDD+. In addition, the REDD+ debate is tainted by concerns about sovereignty and lack of national ownership. Building domestic constituencies for the reforms and associated institutions is therefore a key challenge. REDD+ reforms will require a stronger consensus among political elites and the broader public over the implications of a transition to a 'low carbon' economy in Indonesia. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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