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Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

De Beer I.H.,PharmAccess Foundation Namibia | Gelderblom H.C.,New York University | Gelderblom H.C.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Gelderblom H.C.,Emory University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2012

Background: With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence, to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, and to assess access to healthcare among university students in Namibia. Methods. We assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes, HIV prevalence and access to healthcare among students at the Polytechnic of Namibia and the University of Namibia. HIV prevalence was tested through anonymous oral fluid-based tests. Results: Half (n = 2790/5568) of the university students and 45% (n = 2807/6302) of the Polytechnic students participated in the knowledge and attitudes surveys. HIV/AIDS knowledge was reasonable, except for misperceptions about transmission. Awareness of one's own HIV status and risks was low. In all, 55% (n = 3055/5568) of university students and 58% (n = 3680/6302) of Polytechnic students participated in the HIV prevalence survey; 54 (1.8%) university students and 103 (2.8%) Polytechnic students tested HIV positive. Campus clinics were not the major providers of healthcare to the students. Conclusions: Meaningful strategies addressing the gap between knowledge, attitude and young people's perception of risk of HIV acquisition should be implemented. HIV prevalence among Namibian university students appears relatively low. Voluntary counselling and testing should be stimulated. Efforts should be made to increase access to healthcare through the campus clinics. © 2012 De Beer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Elseviers M.M.,University of Antwerp | Arias-Guillen M.,Hospital Clinic Barcelona | Gorke A.,Center for Internal Medicine | Arens H.-J.,Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbH
Journal of Renal Care | Year: 2014

Background: Sharps injuries and the related risk of infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent one of the major occupational health risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). Literature Review: An overview of available data on the incidence of sharps injuries and the related HBV, HCV and HIV infections and ensuing costs is provided. Results: Literature reported incidence rates of sharps injuries ranging from 1.4 to 9.5 per 100 HCWs, resulting in a weighted mean of 3.7/100 HCWs per year. Sharps injuries were associated with infective disease transmissions from patients to HCWs resulting in 0.42 HBV infections, 0.05-1.30 HCV infections and 0.04-0.32 HIV infections per 100 sharps injuries per year. The related societal costs had a mean of €272, amounting to a mean of €1,966 if the source patient was HIV positive with HBV and HCV co-infections. Conclusion: Sharps injuries remain a frequent threat amongst HCWs. The follow-up and treatment of sharps injuries and the deriving consequences represent a significant cost factor. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

Diederich S.,Diabetes and Nutrition | Diederich S.,Center for Endocrine and Metabolism Diseases | Quinkler M.,Center for Internal Medicine | Mai K.,Diabetes and Nutrition | And 5 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2011

The 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs) play a pivotal role in glucocorticoid (GC) action. 11β-HSD1 is a predominant reductase, activating GCs from inert metabolites, whereas 11β-HSD2 is a potent dehydrogenase inactivating GCs. Knowing the metabolic effects of GCs, a selective inhibition of 11β-HSD1 represents a potential target for therapy of impaired glucose tolerance, insulin insensitivity and central obesity. In vitro, 11β-HSD1 is selectively inhibited by chenodesoxycholic acid (CDCA) and upregulated under GC exposure. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of CDCA and prednisolone on hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity in vivo by measuring 11-reduction of orally given cortisone (E) acetate to cortisol (F). CDCA or placebo was given to 5 male healthy volunteers within a randomised cross-over trial before and after oral administration of 12.5 mg E acetate at 8:00 h. For measurement of in vivo effects of GCs on 11β-HSD1 activity, hepatic reduction of 25 mg E acetate before and after treatment with prednisolone (30 mg for 6 days) was determined in 7 healthy males. Serum GC levels were determined using a fully automated liquid chromatographic system. CDCA had no effect on the activity of 11β-HSD1 in vivo. Prednisolone therapy leads to a marked rise in serum F concentrations and an elevated F/E serum ratio. This proves GC-induced activation of hepatic 11β-HSD1, which could not be extinguished by a parallel increase of IGF-1 under prednisolone. CDCA does not affect in vivo activity of 11β-HSD1 when given in therapeutic dosages. During GC treatment, increased hepatic activation of E to F may aggravate metabolic side effects of GCs such as seen in the metabolic syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG, Stuttgart - New York.

Tiede A.,Hannover Medical School | Klamroth R.,Center for Internal Medicine | Oldenburg J.,University of Bonn
Hamostaseologie | Year: 2015

Turoctocog alfa (NovoEight®) is a new recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) with a truncated B domain and a high degree of tyrosine sulphation, similar to plasma-derived FVIII products. The manufacturing process includes double nanofiltration with a 20-nm pore size and immunoaffinity chromatography with monoclonal F25 anti-FVIII antibodies. Treatment with turoctocog alfa can be monitored with both one-stage and chromogenic substrate assays without a product-specific laboratory standard. In total, 213 previouslytreated patients with severe haemophilia A participated in the pivotal part of the clinical trial programme guardian™. The median annualised bleeding rate during turoctocog alfa prophylaxis was 3.7 and 3.0 in adolescents/adults and children, respectively, with marked differences between participating countries. The success rate for the treatment of breakthrough bleeds was 85% (adults/adolescents) and 94% (children). A total of 41 surgical procedures (15 major, 26 minor) were performed in 33 patients, with a successful haemostatic response reported in all cases. No patient developed confirmed inhibitors in any of the trials. © Schattauer 2015.

Bhardwaj S.,National Diabetes | Misra A.,National Diabetes | Misra A.,Fortis Center for Excellence for Diabetes | Misra A.,Center for Internal Medicine | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m 2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p = 0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p = 0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p = 0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p = 0.00). Conclusion: High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention. © 2011 Bharadwaj et al.

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