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Stevens E.,University College London | Carss K.J.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Cirak S.,University College London | Foley A.R.,University College London | And 23 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Mutations in several known or putative glycosyltransferases cause glycosylation defects in α-dystroglycan (α-DG), an integral component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. The hypoglycosylation reduces the ability of α-DG to bind laminin and other extracellular matrix ligands and is responsible for the pathogenesis of an inherited subset of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies. By exome and Sanger sequencing we identified two individuals affected by a dystroglycanopathy with mutations in β-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B3GALNT2). B3GALNT2 transfers N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) in a β-1,3 linkage to N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc). A subsequent study of a separate cohort of individuals identified recessive mutations in four additional cases that were all affected by dystroglycanopathy with structural brain involvement. We show that functional dystroglycan glycosylation was reduced in the fibroblasts and muscle (when available) of these individuals via flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. B3GALNT2 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, and this localization was perturbed by some of the missense mutations identified. Moreover, knockdown of b3galnt2 in zebrafish recapitulated the human congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype with reduced motility, brain abnormalities, and disordered muscle fibers with evidence of damage to both the myosepta and the sarcolemma. Functional dystroglycan glycosylation was also reduced in the b3galnt2 knockdown zebrafish embryos. Together these results demonstrate a role for B3GALNT2 in the glycosylation of α-DG and show that B3GALNT2 mutations can cause dystroglycanopathy with muscle and brain involvement. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics.

De Ciantis A.,University of Florence | Barkovich A.J.,University of California at San Francisco | Cosottini M.,University of Pisa | Barba C.,University of Florence | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2015

Background and Purpose: Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical development that is often identified in children with epilepsy or delayed development. We investigated in vivo the potential of 7T imaging in characterizing polymicrogyria to determine whether additional features could be identified. Materials and Methods: Ten adult patients with polymicrogyria previously diagnosed by using 3T MR imaging underwent additional imaging at 7T. We assessed polymicrogyria according to topographic pattern, extent, symmetry, and morphology. Additional imaging sequences at 7T included 3D T2∗ susceptibility-weighted angiography and 2D tissue border enhancement FSE inversion recovery. Minimum intensity projections were used to assess the potential of the susceptibility-weighted angiography sequence for depiction of cerebral veins. Results: At 7T, we observed perisylvian polymicrogyria that was bilateral in 6 patients, unilateral in 3, and diffuse in 1. Four of the 6 bilateral abnormalities had been considered unilateral at 3T. While 3T imaging revealed 2 morphologic categories (coarse, delicate), 7T susceptibility-weighted angiography images disclosed a uniform ribbonlike pattern. Susceptibility-weighted angiography revealed numerous dilated superficial veins in all polymicrogyric areas. Tissue border enhancement imaging depicted a hypointense line corresponding to the gray-white interface, providing a high definition of the borders and, thereby, improving detection of the polymicrogyric cortex. Conclusions: 7T imaging reveals more anatomic details of polymicrogyria compared with 3T conventional sequences, with potential implications for diagnosis, genetic studies, and surgical treatment of associated epilepsy. Abnormalities of cortical veins may suggest a role for vascular dysgenesis in pathogenesis. © 2015 AJNR Am J. Neuroradiol.

Garcia III A.J.,Center for Integrative Brain Research | Putnam R.W.,Wright State University | Dean J.B.,Hyperbaric Biomedical Research Laboratory
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010

Breathing hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is common practice in hyperbaric and diving medicine. The benefits of breathing HBO, however, are limited by the risk of central nervous system O2 toxicity, which presents as seizures. We tested the hypothesis that excitability increases in CA1 neurons of the rat hippocampal slice (400 μm) over a continuum of hyperoxia that spans normobaric and hyperbaric pressures. Amplitude changes of the orthodromic population spike were used to assess neuronal O2 sensitivity before, during, and following exposure to 0, 0.6, 0.95 (control), 2.84, and 4.54 atmospheres absolute (ATA) O2. Polarographic O2 electrodes were used to measure tissue slice PO2 (Pt O2). In 0.95 ATA O2, core PtO 2 at 200 μm deep was 115 ± 16 Torr (mean ± SE). Increasing O2 to 2.84 and 4.54 ATA increased core PtO 2 to 1,222 ± 77 and 2,037 ± 157 Torr, respectively. HBO increased the orthodromic population spike amplitude and usually induced hyperexcitability (i.e., secondary population spikes) and, in addition, a longlasting potentiation of the orthodromic population spike that we have termed "oxygen-induced potentiation" (OxIP). Exposure to 0.60 ATA O 2 and hypoxia (0.00 ATA) decreased core Pto2 to 84 ± 6 and 20 ± 4 Torr, respectively, and abolished the orthodromic response. Reoxygenation from 0.0 or 0.6 ATA O2, however, usually produced a response similar to that of HBO: hyperexcitability and activation of OxIP. We conclude that CA1 neurons exhibit increased excitability and neural plasticity over a broad range of Pto2, which can be activated by a single, hyperoxic stimulus. We postulate that transient acute hyperoxia stimulus, whether caused by breathing HBO or reoxygenation following hypoxia (e.g., disordered breathing), is a powerful stimulant for orthodromic activity and neural plasticity in the CA1 hippocampus. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Riviere J.-B.,Center for Integrative Brain Research | Van Bon B.W.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Hoischen A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kholmanskikh S.S.,Cornell University | And 30 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2012

Brain malformations are individually rare but collectively common causes of developmental disabilities. Many forms of malformation occur sporadically and are associated with reduced reproductive fitness, pointing to a causative role for de novo mutations. Here, we report a study of Baraitser-Winter syndrome, a well-defined disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial features, ocular colobomata and neuronal migration defect. Using whole-exome sequencing of three proband-parent trios, we identified de novo missense changes in the cytoplasmic acting-encoding genes ACTB and ACTG1 in one and two probands, respectively. Sequencing of both genes in 15 additional affected individuals identified disease-causing mutations in all probands, including two recurrent de novo alterations (ACTB, encoding p.Arg196His, and ACTG1, encoding p.Ser155Phe). Our results confirm that trio-based exome sequencing is a powerful approach to discover genes causing sporadic developmental disorders, emphasize the overlapping roles of cytoplasmic actin proteins in development and suggest that Baraitser-Winter syndrome is the predominant phenotype associated with mutation of these two genes. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

McDonell L.M.,University of Ottawa | Mirzaa G.M.,University of Chicago | Alcantara D.,University of Sussex | Schwartzentruber J.,McGill University | And 27 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Microcephaly-capillary malformation (MIC-CAP) syndrome is characterized by severe microcephaly with progressive cortical atrophy, intractable epilepsy, profound developmental delay and multiple small capillary malformations on the skin. We used whole-exome sequencing of five patients with MIC-CAP syndrome and identified recessive mutations in STAMBP, a gene encoding the deubiquitinating (DUB) isopeptidase STAMBP (STAM-binding protein, also known as AMSH, associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM) that has a key role in cell surface receptor-mediated endocytosis and sorting. Patient cell lines showed reduced STAMBP expression associated with accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated protein aggregates, elevated apoptosis and insensitive activation of the RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. The latter cellular phenotype is notable considering the established connection between these pathways and their association with vascular and capillary malformations. Furthermore, our findings of a congenital human disorder caused by a defective DUB protein that functions in endocytosis implicates ubiquitin-conjugate aggregation and elevated apoptosis as factors potentially influencing the progressive neuronal loss underlying MIC-CAP syndrome. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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