Center for Integrated Protein science

München, Germany

Center for Integrated Protein science

München, Germany
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Civril F.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Deimling T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | De Oliveira Mann C.C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Ablasser A.,University of Bonn | And 5 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2013

Cytosolic DNA arising from intracellular bacterial or viral infections is a powerful pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that leads to innate immune host defence by the production of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines. Recognition of cytosolic DNA by the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) induces the production of cGAMP to activate the stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Here we report the crystal structure of cGAS alone and in complex with DNA, ATP and GTP along with functional studies. Our results explain the broad DNA sensing specificity of cGAS, show how cGAS catalyses dinucleotide formation and indicate activation by a DNA-induced structural switch. cGAS possesses a remarkable structural similarity to the antiviral cytosolic double-stranded RNA sensor 2′-5′oligoadenylate synthase (OAS1), but contains a unique zinc thumb that recognizes B-form double-stranded DNA. Our results mechanistically unify dsRNA and dsDNA innate immune sensing by OAS1 and cGAS nucleotidyl transferases. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ablasser A.,University of Bonn | Goldeck M.,University of Bonn | Cavlar T.,University of Bonn | Deimling T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 6 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2013

Detection of cytoplasmic DNA represents one of the most fundamental mechanisms of the innate immune system to sense the presence of microbial pathogens. Moreover, erroneous detection of endogenous DNA by the same sensing mechanisms has an important pathophysiological role in certain sterile inflammatory conditions. The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein STING is critically required for the initiation of type I interferon signalling upon detection of cytosolic DNA of both exogenous and endogenous origin. Next to its pivotal role in DNA sensing, STING also serves as a direct receptor for the detection of cyclic dinucleotides, which function as second messenger molecules in bacteria. DNA recognition, however, is triggered in an indirect fashion that depends on a recently characterized cytoplasmic nucleotidyl transferase, termed cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which upon interaction with DNA synthesizes a dinucleotide molecule that in turn binds to and activates STING. We here show in vivo and in vitro that the cGAS-catalysed reaction product is distinct from previously characterized cyclic dinucleotides. Using a combinatorial approach based on mass spectrometry, enzymatic digestion, NMR analysis and chemical synthesis we demonstrate that cGAS produces a cyclic GMP-AMP dinucleotide, which comprises a 2′-5′ and a 3′-5′ phosphodiester linkage >Gp(2′-5′)Ap(3′-5′)>. We found that the presence of this 2′-5′ linkage was required to exert potent activation of human STING. Moreover, we show that cGAS first catalyses the synthesis of a linear 2′-5′-linked dinucleotide, which is then subject to cGAS-dependent cyclization in a second step through a 3′-5′ phosphodiester linkage. This 13-membered ring structure defines a novel class of second messenger molecules, extending the family of 2′-5′-linked antiviral biomolecules. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Plucinska G.,TU Munich | Misgeld T.,TU Munich | Misgeld T.,Synergy Systems | Misgeld T.,Center for Integrated Protein Science | Misgeld T.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2016

Neuronal mitochondria are receiving a rapidly increasing level of attention. This is to a significant part due to the ability to visualize neuronal mitochondria in novel ways, especially in vivo. Such an approach allows studying neuronal mitochondria in an intact tissue context, during different developmental states and in various genetic backgrounds and disease conditions. Hence, in vivo imaging of mitochondria in the nervous system can reveal aspects of the ‘mitochondrial life cycle’ in neurons that hitherto have remained obscure or could only be inferred indirectly. In this survey of the current literature, we review the new insights that have emerged from studies using mitochondrial imaging in intact neural preparations ranging from worms to mice. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Strackharn M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Stahl S.W.,Center for Integrated Protein Science | Puchner E.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Gaub H.E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

Bottom up assembly of functional molecular ensembles with novel properties emerging from composition and arrangement of its constituents is a prime goal of nanotechnology. By single-molecule cut-and-paste we assembled binding sites for malachite green in a molecule-by-molecule assembly process from the two halves of a split aptamer. We show that only a perfectly joined binding site immobilizes the fluorophore and enhances the fluorescence quantum yield by several orders of magnitude. To corroborate the robustness of this approach we produced a micrometer-sized structure consisting of more than 500 reconstituted binding sites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of one by one bottom up functional biomolecular assembly. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Tosi A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Haas C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Herzog F.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Herzog F.,ETH Zurich | And 11 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

INO80/SWR1 family chromatin remodelers are complexes composed of >15 subunits and molecular masses exceeding 1 MDa. Their important role in transcription and genome maintenance is exchanging the histone variants H2A and H2A.Z. We report the architecture of S. cerevisiae INO80 using an integrative approach of electron microscopy, crosslinking and mass spectrometry. INO80 has an embryo-shaped head-neck-body-foot architecture and shows dynamic open and closed conformations. We can assign an Rvb1/Rvb2 heterododecamer to the head in close contact with the Ino80 Snf2 domain, Ies2, and the Arp5 module at the neck. The high-affinity nucleosome-binding Nhp10 module localizes to the body, whereas the module that contains actin, Arp4, and Arp8 maps to the foot. Structural and biochemical analyses indicate that the nucleosome is bound at the concave surface near the neck, flanked by the Rvb1/2 and Arp8 modules. Our analysis establishes a structural and functional framework for this family of large remodelers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Hahne H.,TU Munich | Pachl F.,TU Munich | Ruprecht B.,TU Munich | Maier S.K.,TU Munich | And 8 more authors.
Nature Methods | Year: 2013

We report that low percentages of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in liquid chromatography solvents lead to a strong enhancement of electrospray ionization of peptides, improving the sensitivity of protein identification in bottom-up proteomics by up to tenfold. The method can be easily implemented on any LC-MS/MS system without modification to hardware or software and at no additional cost.

Schiller C.B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Seifert F.U.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Linke-Winnebeck C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hopfner K.-P.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hopfner K.-P.,Center for Integrated Protein science
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2014

DNA double-strand breaks are repaired by two major pathways, homologous recombination or nonhomologous end joining. The commitment to one or the other pathway proceeds via different steps of resection of the DNA ends, which is controlled and executed by a set of DNA double-strand break sensors, endo- and exonucleases, helicases, and DNA damage response factors. The molecular choreographyof the underlying protein machinery is beginning to emerge. In this review, we discuss the early steps of genetic recombination and double-strand break sensing with an emphasis on structural and molecular studies. ©2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Wu Z.,TU Munich | Gholami A.M.,TU Munich | Kuster B.,TU Munich | Kuster B.,Center for Integrated Protein Science
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2012

HSP90 is a central player in the folding and maturation of many proteins. More than two hundred HSP90 clients have been identified by classical biochemical techniques including important signaling proteins with high relevance to human cancer pathways. HSP90 inhibition has thus become an attractive therapeutic concept and multiple molecules are currently in clinical trials. It is therefore of fundamental biological and medical importance to identify, ideally, all HSP90 clients and HSP90 regulated proteins. To this end, we have taken a global and a chemical proteomic approach in geldanamycin treated cancer cell lines using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture and quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified >6200 proteins in four different human cell lines and ∼1600 proteins showed significant regulation upon drug treatment. Gene ontology and pathway/network analysis revealed common and cell-type specific regulatory effects with strong connections to unfolded protein binding and protein kinase activity. Of the 288 identified protein kinases, 98 were geldanamycin treatment including >50 kinases not formerly known to be regulated by HSP90. Protein turn-over measurements using pulsed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture showed that protein down-regulation by HSP90 inhibition correlates with protein half-life in many cases. Protein kinases show significantly shorter half lives than other proteins highlighting both challenges and opportunities for HSP90 inhibition in cancer therapy. The proteomic responses of the HSP90 drugs geldanamycin and PU-H71 were highly similar suggesting that both drugs work by similar molecular mechanisms. Using HSP90 immunoprecipitation, we validated several kinases (AXL, DDR1, TRIO) and other signaling proteins (BIRC6, ISG15, FLII), as novel clients of HSP90. Taken together, our study broadly defines the cellular proteome response to HSP90 inhibition and provides a rich resource for further investigation relevant for the treatment of cancer. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Gutsmiedl K.,Center for Integrated Protein Science | Fazio D.,Center for Integrated Protein Science | Carell T.,Center for Integrated Protein Science
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010

We report the regioselective Cu-free click modification of styrene functionalized DNA with nitrile oxides. A series of modified oligodeoxynucleotides (nine base pairs) was prepared with increasing styrene density. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition with nitrile oxides allows the high density functionalization of the styrene modified DNA directly on the DNA solid support and in solution. This click reaction proceeds smoothly even directly in the DNA synthesizer and gives exclusively 3,5disubstituted isoxazolines. Additionally, PCR products (300 and 900 base pairs) were synthesized with a styrene triphosphate and KOD XL polymerase. The click reaction on the highly modified PCR fragments allows functionalization of hundreds of styrene units on these large DNA fragments simultaneously. Even sequential Cu-free and Cu-catalyzed click reaction of PCR amplicons containing styrene and alkyne carrying nucleobases was achieved. This new approach towards high-density functionalization of DNA is simple, modular, and efficient. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Cavlar T.,University of Bonn | Deimling T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Ablasser A.,University of Bonn | Hopfner K.-P.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 2 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2013

Extensive research on antiviral small molecules starting in the early 1970s has led to the identification of 10-carboxymethyl-9-acridanone (CMA) as a potent type I interferon (IFN) inducer. Up to date, the mode of action of this antiviral molecule has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that CMA mediates a cell-intrinsic type I IFN response, depending on the ER-resident protein STING. CMA directly binds to STING and triggers a strong antiviral response through the TBK1/IRF3 route. Interestingly, while CMA displays extraordinary activity in phosphorylating IRF3 in the murine system, CMA fails to activate human cells that are otherwise responsive to STING ligands. This failure to activate human STING can be ascribed to its inability to bind to the C-terminal ligand-binding domain of human STING. Crystallographic studies show that two CMA molecules bind to the central Cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP)-binding pocket of the STING dimer and fold the lid region in a fashion similar, but partially distinct, to c-diGMP. Altogether, these results provide novel insight into ligand-sensing properties of STING and, furthermore, unravel unexpected species-specific differences of this innate sensor. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization.

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